Table of Contents
Advances in Biology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 813275, 25 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/813275
Review Article

Application of Molecular Approaches for Understanding Foodborne Salmonella Establishment in Poultry Production

Department of Food Science, Center for Food Safety, University of Arkansas, 2650 N. Young Avenue, Fayetteville, AR 72704-5690, USA

Received 27 April 2014; Revised 23 September 2014; Accepted 26 September 2014; Published 18 November 2014

Academic Editor: Sarah Lebeer

Copyright © 2014 Steven C. Ricke. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Salmonellosis in the United States is one of the most costly foodborne diseases. Given that Salmonella can originate from a wide variety of environments, reduction of this organism at all stages of poultry production is critical. Salmonella species can encounter various environmental stress conditions which can dramatically influence their survival and colonization. Current knowledge of Salmonella species metabolism and physiology in relation to colonization is traditionally based on studies conducted primarily with tissue culture and animal infection models. Consequently, while there is some information about environmental signals that control Salmonella growth and colonization, much still remains unknown. Genetic tools for comprehensive functional genomic analysis of Salmonella offer new opportunities for not only achieving a better understanding of Salmonella pathogens but also designing more effective intervention strategies. Now the function(s) of each single gene in the Salmonella genome can be directly assessed and previously unknown genetic factors that are required for Salmonella growth and survival in the poultry production cycle can be elucidated. In particular, delineating the host-pathogen relationships involving Salmonella is becoming very helpful for identifying optimal targeted gene mutagenesis strategies to generate improved vaccine strains. This represents an opportunity for development of novel vaccine approaches for limiting Salmonella establishment in early phases of poultry production. In this review, an overview of Salmonella issues in poultry, a general description of functional genomic technologies, and their specific application to poultry vaccine developments are discussed.