Applied Bionics and Biomechanics / 2015 / Article / Tab 4

Research Article

A Navigation System for the Visually Impaired: A Fusion of Vision and Depth Sensor

Table 4

Comparison with navigation systems developed in the last decade for visually impaired people.

References Year System Cost Accuracy Testing Limitations
Indoor/outdoor Tested by Test Feedback

[23] 2003 NavBelt and the GuideCane High Good Both Blindfolded Obstacle avoidance and natural walking Binaural feedback system and haptic feedback Ultrasonic sensor cannot detect all objects under all conditions, NavBelt is slow but GuideCane is fast; however, a number of sensors need more power.

[24] 2007 Ultrasonic sensor Medium Low Indoor Blindfolded Task completion Vibrotactile Needs some surface for producing distance output; sound waves get absorbed in some surfaces like sponge, cloth, skin, and so forth.

[25]2011 Hybrid ultrasonic, camera, and eBox Medium Indoor Blindfolded Obstacle avoidance and recognition Voice Not tested in outdoors, difficult to manage multiple sensors. Ultrasonic sensor has limitations of giving false data for some surfaces discussed before.

[27] 2012 Wearable Navigation System using SLAM Medium Medium Both Blindfolded Path following Verbal feedback Complex computation for SLAM using landmarks.

[28] 2012 Electronic cane High Good Indoor Blindfolded Obstacle avoidance Verbal feedback Five sensors are integrated to gather obstacles’ data; therefore, malfunctioning of any one of them can cause system failure.

[29] 2013 Smartphone based navigation assistance Low Medium Outdoors Blindfolded Obstacle avoidance Verbal feedback Training data is required and robust obstacle detection is required.

[26] 2013 Hybrid, Infrared, and ultrasonic Low Both Blindfolded Obstacle avoidance Vibrations Infrared sensor is unable to work under strong sunlight; similarly, ultrasonic sensors get effected by loud environmental noises such as hissing sound produced by air houses.

[30] 2015 Robot Guide High Medium Indoor Blind Natural walking Verbal feedback A big robot that needs space for its own movement can only walk on smooth surfaces.

[8] 2015 Infrared sensor Low Low Indoor Blindfolded Travel time Melodies Infrared sensor alone is not reliable because of its blindness under strong light and rough surfaces.

Our system 2015 Combined vision techniques and depth map from Kinect Low Good Both Blind and blindfolded Obstacle avoidance and walking in natural environment Verbal feedback Infrared sensor is unable to work under strong sunlight.