Table 1: Range of human ankle motion [10].

MovementMax ankle angles
RangeMeanStandard deviation

Dorsiflexion20.3° to 29.8°24.6°3.2°
Plantar-flexion37.6° to 45.7°40.9°4.3°
Inversion14.5° to 22.0°16.3°3.8°
Eversion10.0° to 17.0°15.8°4.4°
Internal rotation22.0° to 36.0°29.8°7.5°
External rotation15.4° to 25.9°22.0°5.9°