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Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 1908618, 9 pages
Research Article

Kinematics of the Normal Knee during Dynamic Activities: A Synthesis of Data from Intracortical Pins and Biplane Imaging

1University Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, IFSTTAR, LBMC UMR_T9406, 69622 Lyon, France
2Centre National de Rééducation Fonctionnelle et de Réadaptation-Rehazenter, Laboratoire d’Analyse du Mouvement et de la Posture (LAMP), Luxembourg, Luxembourg

Correspondence should be addressed to Raphaƫl Dumas

Received 16 November 2016; Revised 9 January 2017; Accepted 29 January 2017; Published 11 April 2017

Academic Editor: Luis Gracia

Copyright © 2017 Xavier Gasparutto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Few studies have provided in vivo tibiofemoral kinematics of the normal knee during dynamic weight-bearing activities. Indeed, gold standard measurement methods (i.e., intracortical pins and biplane imaging) raise ethical and experimental issues. Moreover, the conventions used for the processing of the kinematics show large inconsistencies. This study aims at synthesising the tibiofemoral kinematics measured with gold standard measurement methods. Published kinematic data were transformed in the standard recommended by the International Society of Biomechanics (ISB), and a clustering method was applied to investigate whether the couplings between the degrees of freedom (DoFs) are consistent among the different activities and measurement methods. The synthesised couplings between the DoFs during knee flexion (from 4° of extension to −61° of flexion) included abduction (up to −10°); internal rotation (up to 15°); and medial (up to 10 mm), anterior (up to 25 mm), and proximal (up to 28 mm) displacements. These synthesised couplings appeared mainly partitioned into two clusters that featured all the dynamic weight-bearing activities and all the measurement methods. Thus, the effect of the dynamic activities on the couplings between the tibiofemoral DoFs appeared to be limited. The synthesised data might be used as a reference of normal in vivo knee kinematics for prosthetic and orthotic design and for knee biomechanical model development and validation.