Table 2: Description of GUI functionalities.

BlockGUI componentFunction description

(1) Start/stop commandsSTART softkeyTo start the automatic CathROB movements for system set-up
(no catheter mounted on)
STOP softkeyTo stop all CathROB movements
CATHETER sliderTo select the catheter model to be remotely controlled by CathROB

(2) CathROB statusE-STOP ledTo indicate an emergency stop
MOTOR CURRENT ledTo indicate an abnormal current absorption by motors
ROB On ledTo indicate that CathROB is in on-state
ENABLE ledTo indicate that the operator is using the command interface
CALIBRATING ledTo indicate that calibration procedure for the force
sensor is in progress
OK ledTo indicate that calibration was successful
NAVIGATING ledTo indicate that the user is performing remote catheter navigation
MEMO ledTo indicate that the user is saving endocardial target positions via the command interface
REPOSITIONING ledTo indicate that the system is performing the automatic catheter repositioning to memorized targets
L, R, S ledTo indicate that repositioning has been completed for longitudinal (L), rotational (R), and tip-steering (S) movements

(3) Targets of interestHome/T1/T2/T3/T4 indicatorsTo display the coordinates of the targets saved during navigation via the command interface
LSPV, RSPV, LIPV, RIPV softkeysTo load in the system memory four predefined endocardial sites (corresponding to the pulmonary veins)

(4) CathROB displayADVANCE/WITHDRAWAL; CW/CCW; BEND/STRAIGTHEN indicatorsTo display the real-time CathROB movements along each DOF
MIN, MEDIUM, MAX selectorsTo change motor velocities in each DOF
S/H ledTo indicate when the actuators reach software/hardware
limit switches

(5) Force sensingFORCE graphTo display the force signal measured by the force sensor
SAFETY ALARM ledTo indicate that force exceeds the set alarm threshold
SAFETY STOP ledTo indicate that force exceeds the set stop threshold