Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Volume 2017, Article ID 9084725, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9084725
Research Article

Kinematic and Electromyographic Activity Changes during Back Squat with Submaximal and Maximal Loading

1Department of Sports Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Near East University, Nicosia, Northern Cyprus, Mersin 10, Turkey
2School of Physical Education and Sport, Near East University, Nicosia, Northern Cyprus, Mersin 10, Turkey

Correspondence should be addressed to Hasan U. Yavuz; moc.liamg@dmzuvaysalu

Received 14 October 2016; Revised 12 February 2017; Accepted 6 March 2017; Published 4 May 2017

Academic Editor: Le Ping Li

Copyright © 2017 Hasan U. Yavuz and Deniz Erdag. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. Contreras, A. D. Vigotsky, B. J. Schoenfeld, C. Beardsley, and J. Cronin, “A comparison of gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, and vastus lateralis electromyography amplitude in the parallel, full, and front squat variations in resistance-trained females,” Journal of Applied Biomechanics, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 16–22, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. F. Escamilla, “Knee biomechanics of the dynamic squat exercise,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 127–141, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  3. C. Senter and S. L. Hame, “Biomechanical analysis of tibial torque and knee flexion angle: implications for understanding knee injury,” Sports Medicine, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 635–641, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. C. Gullett, M. D. Tillman, G. M. Gutierrez, and J. W. Chow, “A biomechanical comparison of back and front squats in healthy trained individuals,” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 284–292, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. G. D. Myer, A. M. Kushner, J. L. Brent et al., “The back squat: a proposed assessment of functional deficits and technical factors that limit performance,” Strength & Conditioning Journal, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 4–27, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. S. M. McGill and R. W. Norman, “Dynamically and statically determined low back moments during lifting,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 877–885, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Caterisano, R. F. Moss, T. K. Pellinger et al., “The effect of back squat depth on the EMG activity of 4 superficial hip and thigh muscles,” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 428–432, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. B. J. Schoenfeld, “Squatting kinematics and kinetics and their application to exercise performance,” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 3497–3506, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. P. H. Marchetti, J. J. da Silva, B. J. Schoenfeld et al., “Muscle activation differs between three different knee joint-angle positions during a maximal isometric back squat exercise,” The Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 2016, Article ID 3846123, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. W. Hoeger, S. L. Barette, D. F. Hale, and D. R. Hopkins, “Relationship between repetitions and selected percentages of one repetition maximum,” The journal of applied sport science research, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 11–13, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  11. W. Hoeger, D. R. Hopkins, S. L. Barette, and D. F. Hale, “Relationship between repetitions and selected percentages of one repetition maximum: a comparison between untrained and trained males and females,” The journal of applied sport science research, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 47–54, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  12. T. Shimano and W. J. KraemerB. A. Spiering, J. S. Volek, D. L. Hatfield et al., “Relationship between the number of repetitions and selected percentages of one repetition maximum in free weight exercises in trained and untrained men,” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 819–823, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. B. Tan, “Manipulating resistance training program variables to optimize maximum strength in men: a review,” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 289–304, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. M. Clark and S. Lucett, NASM Essentials of Corrective Exercise Training, Jones & Bartlett Learning, Burlington, Massachusetts, USA, 2013.
  15. R. S. Lloyd, A. D. Faigenbaum, M. H. Stone et al., “Position statement on youth resistance training: the 2014 international consensus,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 498–505, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. P. Flanagan and G. J. Salem, “Bilateral differences in the net joint torques during the squat exercise,” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 1220–1226, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Lorenzetti, T. Gulay, M. Stoop et al., “Comparison of the angles and corresponding moments in the knee and hip during restricted and unrestricted squats,” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 2829–2836, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Biscarini, F. M. Botti, and V. E. Pettorossi, “Joint torques and joint reaction forces during squatting with a forward or backward inclined Smith machine,” Journal of Applied Biomechanics, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 85–97, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. H. Hartmann, K. Wirth, and M. Klusemann, “Analysis of the load on the knee joint and vertebral column with changes in squatting depth and weight load,” Sports Medicine, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 993–1008, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. T. McCaw and D. R. Melrose, “Stance width and bar load effects on leg muscle activity during the parallel squat,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 428–436, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. G. Boyden, J. Kingman, and R. Dyson, “A comparison of quadriceps electromyographic activity with the position of the foot during the parallel squat,” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 379–382, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  22. A. Paoli, G. Marcolin, and N. Petrone, “The effect of stance width on the electromyographical activity of eight superficial thigh muscles during back squat with different bar loads,” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 246–250, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. R. Aspe and P. A. Swinton, “Electromyographic and kinetic comparison of the back squat and overhead squat,” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 2827–2836, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. M. A. Bryanton, M. D. Kennedy, J. P. Carey, and L. Z. Chiu, “Effect of squat depth and barbell load on relative muscular effort in squatting,” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 2820–2828, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. H. U. Yavuz, D. Erdağ, A. M. Amca, and S. Aritan, “Kinematic and EMG activities during front and back squat variations in maximum loads,” Journal of Sports Sciences, vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 1058–1066, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  26. M. R. Broer and S. J. Houtz, Patterns of Muscular Activity in Selected Sport Skills, Charles C Thomas Publishing, Springfield, 3rd ed. edition, 1967. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. W. J. Kraemer and A. C. Fry, Strength Testing: Development and Evaluation of Methodology, Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL, 1995.
  28. P. Konrad, ABC of EMG A Practical Introduction to Kinesiological Electromyography, Noraxon Inc., Scottsdale, Arizona, USA, 1st ed. edition, 2005.
  29. G. Robertson, G. Caldwell, J. Hamill, G. Kamen, and S. Whittlesey, Research Methods in Biomechanics, Human Kinetics, Champaign, Illinois, USA, 2nd ed. edition, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. R. Merletti and P. Di Torino, “Standards for reporting EMG data,” Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 3–4, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  31. R. N. Carpinelli, “The size principle and a critical analysis of the unsubstantiated heavier-is-better recommendation for resistance training,” Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 67–86, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  32. E. J. Drinkwater, E. J. Pritchett, and D. G. Behm, “Effect of instability and resistance on unintentional squat-lifting kinetics,” International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 400–413, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. M. Kohler, S. P. Flanagan, and W. C. Whiting, “Muscle activation patterns while lifting stable and unstable loads on stable and unstable surfaces,” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 313–321, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. M. McBride, T. R. Larkin, A. M. Dayne, T. L. Haines, and T. J. Kirby, “Effect of absolute and relative loading on muscle activity during stable and unstable squatting,” International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 177–183, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. D. G. E. Robertson, J. M. J. Wilson, and T. A. St Pierre, “Lower extremity muscle functions during full squats,” Journal of Applied Biomechanics, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 333–339, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. A. H. Saeterbakken, V. Andersen, and R. van den Tillaar, “Comparison of kinematics and muscle activation in free weight back squat with and without elastic bands,” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 945–952, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Rippetoe and L. Kilgore, Starting Strength: Basic Barbell Training, The Aasgaard Company, Wichita Falls, TX, 2nd ed edition, 2007.
  38. P. Comfort and P. Kasim, “Optimizing squat technique,” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 10–13, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  39. D. Diggin, C. O’Regan, N. Whelan et al., “A biomechanical analysis of front vs. back squat: injury implications,” Portuguese Journal of Sport Sciences, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 643–646, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  40. H. Matsumoto, Y. Suda, T. Otani, Y. Niki, B. B. Seedhom, and K. Fujikawa, “Roles of the anterior cruciate ligament and the medial collateral ligament in preventing valgus instability,” Journal of Orthopaedic Science, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 28–32, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. C. Walsh, J. F. Quinlan, R. Stapleton, D. P. FitzPatrick, and D. McCormack, “Three-dimensional motion analysis of the lumbar spine during “free squat” weight lift training,” The American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 927–932, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus