Table 1: Elastic moduli of different human tendons, ligaments, and skin.

Soft tissue typeSourceTest methodYoung’s modulus (MPa)Ref.

Human ankle tendons & ligamentsPlantaris tendonIn vitro tensile[17]
Anterior tibialis tendonUltrasonography[18]
Peroneus longus tendonIn vitro tensile[19]
Peroneus brevis tendonIn vitro tensile[19]
Calcaneal tendonIn vitro tensile[19]
Calcaneofibular ligamentIn vitro tensile[19]
Achilles tendonUltrasonography[20]
Deltoid ligamentsCT, MRI, and finite element modeling[21]
Medial collateral ligamentsIn vitro tensile[22]
Lateral collateral ligamentsIn vitro tensile[22]
Human skinNeckMRI and finite element modeling[23]
BreastSuction cup method[24]
ArmIn vivo tensile (extensometer)[25]
ArmIn vivo indentation[26]
ArmIn vivo indentation[27]