Applied Bionics and Biomechanics / 2019 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

A Biomechanical Analysis of Lower Limb Movement on the Backcourt Forehand Clear Stroke among Badminton Players of Different Levels

Table 1

The contact area, pressure-time integral, and force-time integral for AP and PP.

Plantar regionsPPAP value (95% CI)

Contact area (cm2)
 BT9.20 (±0)9.24 (±0)1.0NaN (0 to 0)
 OT16.93 (±0)16.93 (±0)1.0NaN (0 to 0)
 FM15.64 (±0.471)a13.61 (±1.53)0.0011.74 (−3.10 to −0.96)
 SATM19.32 (±0.99)21.10 (±1.49)b0.0061.40 (0.58 to 2.96)
 FAFM15.52 (±0.63)16.13 (±1.01)0.1260.73 (−1.41 to 0.19)
Pressure-time integral (kPa·s)
 BT86.17 (±7.29)83.09 (±6.43)0.3300.77 (−19.52 to 1.09)
 OT42.56 (±2.28)44.32 (±6.30)0.4160.37 (−6.22 to 2.69)
 FM115.85 (±8.23)a89.93 (±7.98)0.0003.20 (18.3 to 33.53)
 SATM48.32 (±4.88)49.46 (±4.69)0.6040.24 (−5.63 to 3.37)
 FAFM12.44 (±0.98)56.28 (±3.64)b0.00010.75 (−46.43 to −36.70)
Force-time integral (N·s)
 BT35.15 (±2.87)78.62 (±7.16)b0.0007.97 (−48.61 to 38.37).
 OT37.98 (±5.99)40.88 (±6.58)0.3580.46 (−8.71 to 3.02)
 FM70.65 (±10.94)89.22 (±6.71)b0.0002.65 (−25.18 to −11.95)
 SATM55.153 (±3.89)a49.46 (±4.69)0.0091.32 (1.64 to 9.75)
 FAFM26.91 (±3.75)56.45 (±9.22)b0.0004.41 (−36.05 to −23.02)

Notes: values are expressed as mean (standard deviation). ; AP was lower compared to PP. ; PP was lower compared to AP.