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Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Volume 2019, Article ID 7169034, 11 pages
Research Article

Anthropomorphism Index of Mobility for Artificial Hands

Grupo de Biomecánica y Ergonomía, Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica y Construcción, Universitat Jaume I (UJI), 12071, Spain

Correspondence should be addressed to Immaculada Llop-Harillo; se.iju@polli

Received 21 March 2019; Accepted 17 June 2019; Published 28 July 2019

Guest Editor: Francesca Cordella

Copyright © 2019 Immaculada Llop-Harillo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The increasing development of anthropomorphic artificial hands makes necessary quick metrics that analyze their anthropomorphism. In this study, a human grasp experiment on the most important grasp types was undertaken in order to obtain an Anthropomorphism Index of Mobility (AIM) for artificial hands. The AIM evaluates the topology of the whole hand, joints and degrees of freedom (DoFs), and the possibility to control these DoFs independently. It uses a set of weighting factors, obtained from analysis of human grasping, depending on the relevance of the different groups of DoFs of the hand. The computation of the index is straightforward, making it a useful tool for analyzing new artificial hands in early stages of the design process and for grading human-likeness of existing artificial hands. Thirteen artificial hands, both prosthetic and robotic, were evaluated and compared using the AIM, highlighting the reasons behind their differences. The AIM was also compared with other indexes in the literature with more cumbersome computation, ranking equally different artificial hands. As the index was primarily proposed for prosthetic hands, normally used as nondominant hands in unilateral amputees, the grasp types selected for the human grasp experiment were the most relevant for the human nondominant hand to reinforce bimanual grasping in activities of daily living. However, it was shown that the effect of using the grasping information from the dominant hand is small, indicating that the index is also valid for evaluating the artificial hand as dominant and so being valid for bilateral amputees or robotic hands.