Table 7: Range of motion of the hand joints (in degrees) obtained in the human grasp experiment.

Thumb (°)Index (°)Middle (°)Ring (°)Little (°)
FAFFFAFFFFAFFAF
CMCCMCMCPIPMCPMCPPIPMCPPIPMCPMCPPIPMCPMCPPIP

Min-270-24-32-22-90-160-13-7-1-13-7-2
Max322813425124626566681676691268
P5-60-10-5-4-31-11-1-11-3-10
P9515192173093640423084926740

CMC: carpometacarpal joint, MCP: metacarpophalangeal joint, PIP: proximal interphalangeal joint, DIP: distal interphalangeal joint, IP: interphalangeal joint, F: flexion (+)/extension (-), A: abduction (+)/adduction (-), P: percentile.