Gait Characteristics of Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy during Inclined Treadmill Walking under a Virtual Reality Environment

Table 2

Segment coordination systems.

Segment

Definition of the segment coordination system

Pelvis

Origin

Midpoint between hip joint centers

X

Unit vector of cross product between the -axis and the vector from right hip joint center to left hip joint center

Y

Unit vector defined by the -axis and -axis to create a right-hand coordinate system

Z

Unit vector parallel to the line from S1/L5 to the midpoint between left and right shoulder joint centers

Torso

Origin

Thoracolumbar joint center

X

Unit vector perpendicular to the plane formed by the -axis and the vector from right shoulder joint center to left shoulder joint center

Y

Unit vector defined by the -axis and -axis to create a right-hand coordinate system

Z

Unit vector parallel to the line from S1/L5 to the midpoint between left and right shoulder joint centers

Thigh

Origin

Hip joint center

X

Unit vector perpendicular to the -axis lies in the global sagittal plane and points anteriorly

Y

Unit vector defined by the -axis and -axis to create a right-hand coordinate system

Z

Unit vector from knee joint center to hip joint center

Shank

Origin

Knee joint center

X

Unit vector perpendicular to the -axis lies in the global sagittal plane and points anteriorly

Y

Unit vector defined by the -axis and -axis to create a right-hand coordinate system

Z

Unit vector from ankle joint center to knee joint center

Foot

Origin

Subtalar joint center

X

Unit vector perpendicular to the -axis lies in the global sagittal plane and points anteriorly

Y

Unit vector defined by the -axis and -axis to create a right-hand coordinate system

Z

Unit vector from toe joint center to subtalar joint center

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