Table of Contents
Advances in Botany
Volume 2014, Article ID 434979, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/434979
Review Article

Arabinogalactan Glycosyltransferases: Enzyme Assay, Protein-Protein Interaction, Subcellular Localization, and Perspectives for Application

Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C, Denmark

Received 8 May 2014; Revised 17 August 2014; Accepted 21 August 2014; Published 10 September 2014

Academic Editor: Scott Finlayson

Copyright © 2014 Naomi Geshi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are abundant extracellular proteoglycans that are found in most plant species and involved in many cellular processes, such as cell proliferation and survival, pattern formation, and growth, and in plant microbe interaction. AGPs are synthesized by posttranslational O-glycosylation of proteins and attached glycan part often constitutes greater than 90% of the molecule. Subtle altered glycan structures during development have been considered to function as developmental markers on the cell surface, but little is known concerning the molecular mechanisms. My group has been working on glycosylation enzymes (glycosyltransferases) of AGPs to investigate glycan function of the molecule. This review summarizes the recent findings from my group as for AtGalT31A, AtGlcAT14A-C, and AtGalT29A of Arabidopsis thaliana with a specific focus on the (i) biochemical enzyme activities; (ii) subcellular compartments targeted by the glycosyltransferases; and (iii) protein-protein interactions. I also discuss application aspect of glycosyltransferase in improving AGP-based product used in industry, for example, gum arabic.