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Advances in Chemistry
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 182327, 8 pages
Review Article

Increasing the Stability of Metal-Organic Frameworks

1Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77842, USA
2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77842, USA

Received 10 March 2014; Revised 13 June 2014; Accepted 16 June 2014; Published 18 September 2014

Academic Editor: Qiaohui Fan

Copyright © 2014 Mathieu Bosch et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new category of advanced porous materials undergoing study by many researchers for their vast variety of both novel structures and potentially useful properties arising from them. Their high porosities, tunable structures, and convenient process of introducing both customizable functional groups and unsaturated metal centers have afforded excellent gas sorption and separation ability, catalytic activity, luminescent properties, and more. However, the robustness and reactivity of a given framework are largely dependent on its metal-ligand interactions, where the metal-containing clusters are often vulnerable to ligand substitution by water or other nucleophiles, meaning that the frameworks may collapse upon exposure even to moist air. Other frameworks may collapse upon thermal or vacuum treatment or simply over time. This instability limits the practical uses of many MOFs. In order to further enhance the stability of the framework, many different approaches, such as the utilization of high-valence metal ions or nitrogen-donor ligands, were recently investigated. This review details the efforts of both our research group and others to synthesize MOFs possessing drastically increased chemical and thermal stability, in addition to exemplary performance for catalysis, gas sorption, and separation.