Table 2: Analytical characteristics of proposed methods.

AnalytesMatrixSample treatmentUHPLC chromatographic conditionsLOQs
(μg Kg−1)
Recovery (%)Intraday precision
(%RSD, )
Intermediate precision
(%RSD, )

AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, OTA, FB1, FB2, T-2, HT-2, STE, CIT, DON, NIV, F-X, ZENCereals and pseudocerealsQuEChERS-based extractionMobile phase:
(A) H2O with 0.3% formic acid and 5 mM ammonium formate
(B) MeOH with 0.3% formic acid and 5 mM ammonium formate
Gradient profile: 0 min: 5% B; 1 min: 50% B; 2 min: 72% B; 4 min: 80% B and 6 min: 90% B
Column: Zorbax Eclipse Plus RRHD C18 (50 mm 2.1 mm, 1.8 m)
Flow-rate: 0.4 mL min−1
Temperature: 35°C
Injection volume: 5 L
From 0.23 (AFG1) to 233 (NIV)From 60.0 (NIV in red rice) to 103.5 (AFG2 in white rice)From 1.3 (FB2) to 8.8 (ZEN)From 6.4 (HT-2) to 11.9 (FB1, FX)
OTA, FB1, FB2, T-2, HT-2, STE, CIT, DON, F-X, ZENCereal syrupsQuEChERS-based extractionFrom 0.45 (STE) to 75.2 (DON)From 62.8 (STE in wheat syrup) to 100.6 (CIT in rice syrup)From 1.3 (T-2, CIT) to 8.4 (DON)From 2.6 (CIT) to 11.5 (OTA)
AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, OTA, FB1, FB2, T-2, HT-2, STE, CIT, DON, F-X, ZENEdible nuts and seedsQuEChERS-based extraction + DLLMEFrom 0.57 (OTA) to 150 (F-X)From 61.7 (STE in almond) to 104.3 (T-2 in hazelnut)From 0.6 (ZEN) to 8.9 (CIT)From 6.0 (T-2) to 10.6 (DON)
AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, OTA, FB1, FB2, T-2, HT-2, STE, CIT, DON, NIV, F-X, ZENMilk thistleQuEChERS-based extraction + DLLMEFrom 1.50 (AFG1) to 1530 (NIV)From 60.0 (CIT in extract) to 98.9 (AFB2 in extract)From 4.4 (OTA) to 9.3 (AFG2)From 5.3 (FB1) to 9.9 (T2)