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Advances in Civil Engineering
Volume 2009, Article ID 353960, 10 pages
Research Article

Genetic Programming and Standardization in Water Temperature Modelling

1Instituto de Ingeniería, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, Edificio 5, Cub. 403, 04510 México, DF, Mexico
2Facultad de Ingeniería, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 México, DF, Mexico
3Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Maritime and Environmental, Universidad Politécnica de Catalunya, C/ Jordi Girona1-3, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
4Instituto de Investigaciones en Matemáticas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 México, DF, Mexico

Received 21 May 2008; Revised 20 April 2009; Accepted 21 June 2009

Academic Editor: Bryan W. Karney

Copyright © 2009 Maritza Arganis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


An application of Genetic Programming (an evolutionary computational tool) without and with standardization data is presented with the aim of modeling the behavior of the water temperature in a river in terms of meteorological variables that are easily measured, to explore their explanatory power and to emphasize the utility of the standardization of variables in order to reduce the effect of those with large variance. Recorded data corresponding to the water temperature behavior at the Ebro River, Spain, are used as analysis case, showing a performance improvement on the developed model when data are standardized. This improvement is reflected in a reduction of the mean square error. Finally, the models obtained in this document were applied to estimate the water temperature in 2004, in order to provide evidence about their applicability to forecasting purposes.