Zirconate-titanate, PZT actuators integrated with cut-out methods. Device size: 50.8 mm 25.4 mm 0.254 mm
AS4/3501-6 graphite/epoxy laminates
Fatigue of active PZT. Specimens cycled at different max stress levels while exciting the embedded actuator from 10 V to 100 V or 10 V to 100 V. 10 Hz and R = 0.1. Embedded PZT performed better in the out-of-phase than in-phase conditions.
Tensile strength and Young’s modulus are not affected by the integration of actuator/sensor using the two embedding techniques. No degradation in the fatigue life/strength. The PZT actuator/sensor functions mechanically fatigued or loaded to the maximum stress level equal to its operational design limit.
Active flexible piezoceramic sensors and actuators patches. Patches dimensions: 135 mm 55 mm 0.33 mm.
Plain weave carbon/epoxy material
(1) Cutout holes, (2) molded-in holes, and (3) embedding techniques. Manufacturing, durability, dynamic, and structural performance of embedded materials are optimal if materials with devices are made with method (3)
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