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Advances in Civil Engineering
Volume 2012, Article ID 391214, 10 pages
Research Article

A Prediction Method of Tensile Young's Modulus of Concrete at Early Age

1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611, Japan
2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
3Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kure National College of Technology, Kure, Hiroshima 737-8506, Japan

Received 7 March 2011; Accepted 22 September 2011

Academic Editor: Kent A. Harries

Copyright © 2012 Isamu Yoshitake et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Knowledge of the tensile Young's modulus of concrete at early ages is important for estimating the risk of cracking due to restrained shrinkage and thermal contraction. However, most often, the tensile modulus is considered equal to the compressive modulus and is estimated empirically based on the measurements of compressive strength. To evaluate the validity of this approach, the tensile Young's moduli of 6 concrete and mortar mixtures are measured using a direct tension test. The results show that the tensile moduli are approximately 1.0–1.3-times larger than the compressive moduli within the material's first week of age. To enable a direct estimation of the tensile modulus of concrete, a simple three-phase composite model is developed based on random distributions of coarse aggregate, mortar, and air void phases. The model predictions show good agreement with experimental measurements of tensile modulus at early age.