Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Civil Engineering
Volume 2016, Article ID 1548319, 29 pages
Research Article

Hysteresis and Soil Site Dependent Input and Hysteretic Energy Spectra for Far-Source Ground Motions

1Michael Baker International, Hamilton, NJ 08619, USA
2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244-1240, USA

Received 30 June 2016; Revised 14 September 2016; Accepted 26 September 2016

Academic Editor: Lucio Nobile

Copyright © 2016 Mebrahtom Gebrekirstos Mezgebo and Eric M. Lui. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Earthquake input energy spectra for four soil site classes, four hysteresis models, and five ductility levels are developed for far-source ground motion effect. These energy spectra are normalized by a quantity called velocity index (VI). The use of VI allows for the creation of dimensionless spectra and results in smaller coefficients of variation. Hysteretic energy spectra are then developed to address the demand aspect of an energy-based seismic design of structures with 5% critical damping and ductility that ranges from 2 to 5. The proposed input and hysteretic energy spectra are then compared with response spectra generated using nonlinear time history analyses of real ground motions and are found to produce reasonably good results over a relatively large period range.