Advances in Civil Engineering / 2019 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

A Method for Cavity Scale Estimation Based on Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) Explorations: An Experimental Study

Table 2

Dielectric values of the typical pavement soil and layer constituents.

ConstituentDielectric value

Air1
Freshwater8
Ice4
Bedrock (granite)5–7
Clay25–40
Silt16–30
Silty sand7–10
Sand subbase4–6
Gravel base4–7
Glacial till8–18
Asphalt concrete4–8
Slag asphalt concrete8–15
Portland cement concrete8–10
Bitumen bound base6–7
Cement bound base8–10

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