Table 4: Comparison of experimental and current FE approach (the yield and maximum deflections).

Model markDeflection (mm) (experimental)Loadings (experimental)-numerical (kN)Deflection (mm) (numerical)
YieldUltimateYieldUltimateYieldUltimate

B16.8061.80(165)-165(247)-2476.6361.80
B210.7040.20(265)-265(397)-39711.2740.72
B37.5040.10(209)-215(313)-3137.1840.00
B413.1039.40(324)-318(487)-48712.6739.61
B5NANANA -293NA-3756.2622.54
B6NANANA-335NA-4258.9717.94
B710.5050.00(241)-251(362)-36210.6750.40
B89.7022.90(301)- 321(452)-4529.6622.67

NA: not applicable.