Research Article  Open Access
Yazhen Sun, Man Deng, Youlin Ye, Lin Gao, Huaizhi Zhang, Zuoxin Ma, "Research of Method for Improving AntifreezeThaw Performance Based on Asphalt Mixture FreezeThaw Damage Development Process", Advances in Civil Engineering, vol. 2020, Article ID 8879880, 12 pages, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8879880
Research of Method for Improving AntifreezeThaw Performance Based on Asphalt Mixture FreezeThaw Damage Development Process
Abstract
To improve the antifreezethaw performance of asphalt pavement in the seasonal freezing regions, the temperature and the time of freezethaw test were redesigned based on the climatic characteristics of the regions, and the splitting tensile strength tests were carried out to determine the lowtemperature performance of the asphalt mixture under the influence of the gradation and the asphaltaggregate ratio. A mathematical model was built to investigate the freezethaw damage law. According to the test results of splitting tensile strength of the asphalt mixture under freezethaw cycles, the probabilistic damage variable of the asphalt mixture was redefined and a physical probability model was built to analyse the freezethaw damage. Based on the freezethaw damage development process and the mechanism of the asphalt mixture, the effective measures to improve the antifreezethaw performance were provided and demonstrated through the correlations among the damage parameters (the shape parameter α, the scale factor λ, and the gradient factor ν) and the freezethaw resistance of the asphalt mixture. The test results showed that the splitting tensile strength decreased with the increase of the number of the freezethaw cycles. With the same gradation, the splitting freezethaw damage degree of the asphalt mixture with 5.8% asphaltaggregate ratio is about 6% less than others after the 18th freezethaw cycle. The freezethaw resistance increases with the asphaltaggregate ratio. With the same asphaltaggregate ratio, the splitting freezethaw damage degree of Sgrade mixtures is about 11.8% higher than that of Zgrade mixtures. Sgrade mixtures have positive effects on the freezethaw resistance. The results suggest new measures for further investigation on the design and maintenance of the asphalt mixture in the seasonal freezing regions.
1. Introduction
Asphalt pavements are widely used in China’s highway constructions due to the advantages, such as the high driving comfort and the low noise. An asphalt mixture is generally considered to be a complex porous material which includes the asphalt, the aggregates, and the fillers, as well as the large number of voids. The freezethaw damage of the asphalt pavement can be caused by low temperature and moisture, which is very unfavorable to the construction of highways in the seasonal freezing regions. The seasonal freezing regions spread over 10 provinces of China and distribute in large areas across the territory. The civil infrastructures are faced with the problems of damage and freezethaw resistance of the asphalt mixture, which are acknowledged the critical issues worldwide [1–3].
Researchers have studied the freezethaw damage development mechanism of the asphalt mixture and revealed the simultaneous effects of the water flow, the deicing salt and the calcium acetate on asphalt concrete deterioration under freezethaw cycles [4–7]. The results showed that the freezethaw cycles and the low temperature had obvious impact on the compressive properties of the mixture in cold plateau regions [8]. The durability of the concrete with fly ash as fine aggregate under the freezethaw cycles has been discussed, providing the theoretical reference and basis for the analysis of concrete durability in the multifactor environment [9]. With the development of technology, the test equipment has also been improved. The Xray CT technique is widely employed to capture the internal structure of the asphalt mixtures. The damage mechanism of the asphalt mixture under freezethaw cycle has been obtained [10–13]. In the field of concrete research, the threeparameter Weibull distribution model has been employed to conduct the probabilistic damage analysis. The relationships between the service life and the damage parameter for different probabilities of reliability have been explicitly established, from which the service life of the concrete subjected to cyclic freezing and thawing actions has been determined at the given reliability index [14]. In order to extend the service life of the steel bridge deck pavement, an LLSBDP structure “EAC + SMA” has been proposed. The “EAC + SMA” structure can be used to extend the service life of the steel bridge deck pavement based on a numerical analysis [15]. Based on steering wheel difference angle through the Delphi method, an evaluation model has been established to investigate the influence of different rutting depths on driving [16].
In the research on the freezethaw resistance of the asphalt mixtures, the dynamic nondestructive test has been employed to evaluate the antifreezethaw performance of the asphalt mixtures. It was found that the rubber asphalt mixture had better antifreezethaw performance than the neat asphalt mixture; the particle size of rubber powder also showed an impact on the freezethaw performance of the asphalt mixture [17–19]. In recent years, it has been observed the polyester fiber content can exert an effect on the air voids and lowtemperature performance [20]. Some studies have shown that the basalt fiberdiatomitemodified asphalt mixture had better low temperature crack resistance and antifreezethaw cycle capacity compared to the control asphalt mixture [21, 22].
Based on the research results, efforts have been made to assess the frostinduced internal damage of the asphalt mixture using both freezethaw cycle and damage. In order to improve the freezethaw resistance of the asphalt mixtures, most research studies have considered the improving of material properties. However, few studies suggested methods to improve the antifreezethaw performance, which were influenced by the character of the mixture, such as the gradation, the asphaltaggregate ratio, and the specific damagedevelopment paths. Therefore, this study redefined the damage degree of the asphalt mixture using the test results of splitting tensile strength of the asphalt mixture under freezethaw cycles. The firstorder differential damage evolution equation was obtained by introducing the difference method. Weibull distribution model was employed to conduct the probabilistic damage analysis and the development characteristics analysis of the freezethaw damage which was affected by the gradation and the asphaltaggregate ratio. The effective methods to improve antifreezethaw performance for different types of asphalt mixtures were provided and demonstrated through the freezethaw damage process. This paper can be used as a reference for further investigation on the design and maintenance of the asphalt mixture in seasonal freezing regions.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Materials
In this study, Liaohe90# matrix heavy traffic asphalt is used as the binder. The specifications are listed in Table 1.

Both the aggregate and the mineral powder are limestone. The specifications are given in Tables 2 and 3.


In order to investigate the effect of gradations on freezethaw damage of materials, two aggregate gradations (AC13S and AC13Z) were designed based on T07022011 specified in JTG E202011. The gradations are listed in Table 4 and the gradation curves are shown in Figure 1. According to the Marshall design procedure, the optimum asphalt content (OAC) of the two types of asphalt mixtures is 5.3%. To investigate the influence of the asphaltaggregate ratio on the antifreezethaw performance of the asphalt mixture, asphalt mixtures of three types with asphaltaggregate ratios differing from the OAC by ±0.5%, i.e., 4.8%, 5.3%, and 5.8%, respectively, were selected for the research.

2.2. Test Method
With the asphaltaggregate ratios and the gradations mentioned above, six Marshall specimens were made by gyratory compaction method according to the Chinese specification of JTG E202011. The specimens were compacted in a Marshall Compactor with 50 beats on each side.
According to JTG E202011, every specimen was immersed in water and a vacuum of 97.3∼98.7 kPa (730∼740 Hg) for 15 min and soaked in atmospheric pressure for 30 min. Each cycle consisted of freezing at 18 ± 2°C for 16 ± 1 h, followed by soaking in water at 60 ± 0.5°C for 24 h. Before freezing, the specimen was placed into a plastic bag with 10 ml water. Before thawing, the specimen was removed from the plastic bag. The actual conditions in the seasonal freezing regions of northern China have been taken into account. For example, the average minimum temperature in winter in Shenyang is −18°C, and the average maximum temperature in summer is 35°C. Taking the most unfavorable state into account, the new temperature and the time of the freezethaw cycle were redefined. Each cycle consisted of freezing at −20°C for 8 h, followed by soaking in water at 36.8°C for 8 h. After 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, and 18 freezethaw cycles, the splitting tensile strength test was carried out, which is shown in Figure 2. The specimen was placed in a 25°C dry condition room for 2 h before the splitting tensile strength test. Based on JTG E202011, the specimen after the freezethaw cycle was tested at the temperature of −10°C and the constant loading rate was 20 mm/min. During the test, the height of the specimen and the failure load were recorded by computer and the splitting tensile strength was calculated.
(a)
(b)
2.3. Results and Discussion
Figure 3 shows that the splitting tensile strength (R_{Tn}) of all types of asphalt mixtures decreases with the increase of the number of freezethaw cycles. However, the splitting strength of different types of asphalt mixtures presents different trends with the freezethaw cycles. R_{Tn} decreases significantly in the first 4 freezethaw cycles and decreases to a lower level after the 10th freezethaw cycle. After the 14th freezethaw cycle, the decrease slowed down obviously.
It is well accepted that the strength loss of the asphalt mixture exposed to the freezethaw cycle is caused by the expansion of freezing water in the void system, the osmotic pressure of the mixture during the freezing process and the decrease of the cohesion of the mixture. Here are the interpretations for the attenuation of the splitting tensile strength of the mixtures after the freezethaw cycle.
The strength rapidly decreases in the first 4 freezethaw cycles, which is due to the frostheave force caused by the volume expansion and temperature stress. The internal structure of the asphalt mixtures is damaged and the internal microcracks accumulate and grow quickly in the paste and the aggregate of the asphalt mixture during the freezing and thawing, which affects the stability of the skeleton structure of the mixture, so the strength reduces faster. After the 4th freezethaw cycle, the splitting strength of the mixture is further reduced and the internal microcracks are further diffused to form interconnected pores. The frostheave force is dissipated to a certain extent. After the 10th freezethaw cycle, the splitting strength of the mixture decreases slowly. The void ratio increases and the frostheave force tends to be stable with the increase of the number of freezethaw cycle.
3. Study on FreezeThaw Damage Characteristics of Asphalt Mixtures
3.1. Attenuation Law of Asphalt Mixture on FreezeThaw Damage
The splitting tensile strength test is effective in the evaluating of asphalt mixture degradation through the freezethaw cycles. Therefore, the damage degree of asphalt mixture due to freezing and thawing is defined aswhere D_{Tn} is the damage degree of the asphalt mixture at the nth freezethaw cycle, R_{Tn} is the splitting tensile strength of damaged samples at the nth freezethaw cycle, and R_{T0} is the splitting tensile strength of intact (unconditioned) samples, respectively.
By analyzing the change of damage degree with the number of freezethaw cycles, the relationship between the damage degree and the freezethaw cycles can be obtained. It is observed that the curves of the damage degree of asphalt mixture D_{Tn} are nonlinear, and the variation trends can be fitted in the exponential function form, as shown in Figures 4 and 5. All correlation coefficients R are larger than 0.9, as shown in Table 5. Therefore, the equation that simulates the variation of the damage degree of the asphalt mixture D_{Tn} as the freezethaw cycles changes is written aswhere a is a parameter relating to the antifreezethaw performance. The larger the value, the higher the position of the curve line is, which indicates that the damage of the mixture is large and the freezethaw resistance is weak. The values of parameter a for different types of mixtures are shown in Figures 4 and 5.

Figures 4 and 5 illustrate the relationships between the number of freezethaw cycles and the damage degree of the asphalt mixture. It can be seen from the figures that the damage degrees of all types of the asphalt mixtures are on a stable increase with the number of freezethaw cycles. For Zgrade mixture, the splittingfreezethaw damage degree of the 5.8%asphaltaggregateratio mixture is 67.19% after the 18th freezethaw cycle, which is 6.55% and 6.05% lower than the other two types of mixtures, respectively. For Sgrade mixture, the splittingfreezethaw damage degree of the 5.8%asphaltaggregateratio mixture is 60.53% after the 18th freezethaw cycle, which is 5.58% and 9.8% lower than the other two types of mixtures, respectively. Ordinarily, a smaller damage degree value means a preferable antifreezethaw property, indicating that the increasing asphaltaggregate ratio has a significant influence on the antifreezethaw property of the asphalt mixture. For the mixture with the same asphaltaggregate ratio, the damage degree of Sgrade mixture is lower than that of Zgrade, and the maximum difference is 11.8%, which indicates that Sgrade mixture has better antifreezethaw property than Zgrade mixture. It is observed in Figures 4 and 5 that the value a of the 5.8%asphaltaggregateratio mixture is always the minimum, indicating that its antifreezethaw property is the best with the two mixtures (Zgrade and Sgrade). The value a of Sgrade mixture is smaller than that of Zgrade mixture, which indicates that Sgrade mixture has better freezethaw resistance.
3.2. Damage Evolution of Asphalt Mixture
To study the freezethaw damage evolution process of the six types of asphalt mixtures, the first order difference of the damage degree at the nth freezethaw cycle is calculated, and the damage evolution equation is obtained as
The splittingfreezethaw damage evolution curves are plotted in Figure 6. The line position of the curve represents the damage evolution rate. The higher the line position, the faster the damage evolution rate is and the faster the damage degree decreases. The splittingfreezethaw damage evolution curves show that the splitting freezethaw damage evolution process of Zgrade and Sgrade asphalt mixtures is divided into three stages: the rapid damage stage, the stable damage stage, and the developing damage stage. In the first stage, the bound water in the pores of the asphalt mixtures produces a periodic phase change and microcracks emerge near the interface between the asphalt and the aggregate on the surface of the asphalt mixtures so that the water continuously infiltrates during the freezing process. The damage increases rapidly, and the mechanical properties are significantly reduced. However, for the 4.8%asphaltaggregate ratio mixture, the rapid damage stage is during the 0–8 freezethaw cycles. This is because this type of mixture has a large initial void fraction and is greatly affected by the frostheave force. In the second stage, the internal structure tends to be in a stable state. Meanwhile, the expanded and connected voids have a certain dissipation effect on the frostheave force of ice. The rate of damage evolution decreases. In the last stage, the frostheave force continues to work, and the microcracks develop further, causing severe damage to the mixture until damage occurs.
4. Probabilistic Damage Modeling under FreezeThaw Action and Statistical Damage Evolution Analysis
4.1. Theoretical Background of the Damage Model for Asphalt Mixture Subjected to Frost [23–28]
Based on the research result [29], the universal damage model of concrete was used to account for different failure mechanisms under the freezethaw condition. This damage evolution method has been gradually introduced into the asphalt concrete from the field of cement concrete, and it is reasonable and feasible to apply it to the freezethaw damage evolution analysis of the asphalt mixtures. Monotonic compressive strength tests were designed to build a crack evolution model by pseudoJintegral Paris’ law [30]. The crack propagation model based on pseudoJintegral Paris’ law was able to accurately characterize the crack propagation in bituminous binders under a rotational shear fatigue load [31]. And crack length (CL) based healing index was a fundamental and accurate parameter to evaluate the healing rate and healing potential of the bitumen [32]. This study aims to develop a damage model for asphalt mixture subjected to freezethaw action with damage theory and physical probability theory.
4.1.1. Model Concept and Hypotheses
Figure 7 represents the 3D model of a structural asphalt mixture element with a square crosssection. The small, solid block inside the square represents a microelement of the asphalt mixture. The hypotheses are as follows.
Hypothesis 1. The asphalt mixture is isotropic and homogeneous.
Hypothesis 2. For simplicity, it is assumed that all of the microelements with the same minimum distance to the boundary of the domain have the same damage evolution.
Hypothesis 3. The damages of the microelements are assumed to be independent random variables following the threeparameter Weibull distribution. The probability density function (PDF) for the threeparameter Weibull distribution is defined aswhere t is the time, α is the shape parameter, and λ is the scale factor.
Hypothesis 4. The shape parameter α can be regarded as a constant because the shape of the probability distribution function of the damage of the asphalt mixture at all locations should be similar if the microelements is adversely affected by the same type of damage.
4.1.2. Probabilistic Damage Evolution Model
Based on Hypothesis 2, λ has the form
Take a microelement at the position (x, y, z). f (x, y, z; t) is the probability density function of the damage of the microelement at the position (x, y, z). The random variable Q (x, y, z; t) is the damage volume of the microelement at time t, and Q (x, y, z; t) follows the Poisson distribution. The damage probability P at time t is
Based on the expected properties of Poisson distribution, the expected value of the random variable Q (x, y, z; t) iswhere n is the number of sample points in the entire domain. The failed volume of the mixture is
The probabilistic damage variable of asphalt mixture D_{V} is defined as the ratio of the failed volume to the total volume:where ΔV is the failed volume, V is the undamaged volume, and V_{0} is the total volume.
Combining equations (7)–(9), the freezethaw damage evolution equation is obtained:
4.1.3. Numerical Approximation
As shown in Figure 7, the domain is discretized into N (N is an even number) equally spaced microelements. Based on Hypothesis 2, the number of the microelements with the same minimum distance to the boundary of the domain iswhere i = 1, 2, …, (N/2 − 1) and F_{i}(t) is the cumulative density function (CDF), which is regarded as the probability of failure.
Based on Hypothesis 3, according to probability theory and mathematical statistics, when the total number of sample points is small, the Poisson distribution and Bernoulli distribution can be considered to be the same. At time t, the freezethaw damage event of the n_{i} block of the unit Φ_{i} follows the Bernoulli distribution. The expected value is
According to Hypothesis 4,
Therefore, the mathematical expectation of the total microelements destruction at time t is
The expected value of freezethaw damage iswhere N is the number of equal parts on each side of the model and is taken as an even number; i = 1, 2, …, (N/2 – 1), n is the number of freezethaw cycles (take 0/2/4/8/10/14/18), α is the shape parameter, and λ is the scale factor, respectively.
According to the freezethaw damage model, the freezethaw damage process of AC13 mixture is considered a cumulative process of its internal failure microelements, so the splitting freezethaw damage degree D_{Tn} can be considered as the partial failure. The cumulative volume, combined with the above analysis, can be considered as E (D_{V}) = E (D_{Tn}).
4.2. Research on Damage Development Process Based on Physical Probability Model
The shape Parameter α represents the Weibull shape parameter used to describe the change shapes of the curves. It reflects the differences in the evolution of freezethaw damage of different types of mixtures. The scale factor λ reflects the magnitude of the resistance of the asphalt mixture to adverse conditions and is negatively related to the resistance of the material. The gradient factor reflects the differences in the evolution of freezethaw damage at different locations inside the asphalt mixture, and its absolute value is positively correlated with the magnitude of the difference. The value of ν is positive, and the damage of the asphalt mixture is propagated from the outside to the inside.
Some studies have made certain assumptions about the relationship between the scale factor and the gradient factor to investigate the internal damage process of the mixture under the freezethaw cycle. However, in fact, the relationship between the scale factor and the gradient factor is affected by the change in void ratio and the distribution of the voids. The damage process is uneven. Therefore, using the relationship between the expected value of freezethaw damage and the number of freezethaw cycles, the nonlinear relationship between the scale factor and the gradient factor was deduced to describe the freezethaw damage path of the asphalt mixture, and the development process of freezethaw damage of asphalt mixture can be described more accurately.
A 10point grid freezethaw damage model was used for calculation. In a damage model that does not assume a linear relationship between the scale factor and the number of model layers, the scale factor λ_{i} of each layer continuously changes with the layer number i. The slope of the λ_{i} − i curve can be regarded as the value of the gradient factor ν_{i}. The fittings were performed using 1st OP software. The damage parameters obtained by the fittings are shown in Table 6. The model obtained is

Because the model does not make any assumptions about the relationship between the scale factor and the number of layers in the model, it can study the process of uneven damage of the asphalt mixture more specifically. Figure 8 shows the λ_{0}iν relationships of different mixtures in this model.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
It can be seen from Figure 8 that the asphaltaggregate ratio and the gradation affect the freezethaw damage process of AC13 asphalt mixture. It is observed in Figures 8(a) and 8(b) that there is a certain similarity between the two damage processes of Zgrade mixture of 5.8% asphaltaggregate ratio and Sgrade mixture of 5.3% ratio. The scale factor goes up first, then goes down, and finally goes up. Synchronous damage advances slowly. It is observed in Figures 8(c) and 8(d) that there are some similarities between the two damage processes of Zgrade mixture of 5.3% ratio and Sgrade mixture of 5.8% ratio, and the scale factor both increases to the maximum and then decreases and remains stable, indicating that the external resistance to freezethaw damage is better than the internal resistance to freezethaw damage, but the internal damage is more uniform, and the synchronous damage advances faster. It is observed in Figures 8(e) and 8(f) that the damage processes of the two gradation types of 4.8% ratio is different from other mixtures. For the Zgrade mixture of 4.8% ratio, the scale factor first stabilizes, then increases to the maximum with the number of layers i, and finally decreases, indicating that the external freezethaw resistance of this type of mixture is relatively low, and the damage develops from the outside to the inside. For Sgrade mixture of 4.8% ratio, the scale factor first increases with the number of layers i, then stabilizes, then gradually increases, and then decreases, indicating that the type of mixture has poor freezethaw resistance and the damage develops from the middle of the inside to the outside.
To explain the freezethaw damage process based on different mixtures with splitting properties, a 3D model crosssection/longitudinal section diagram is used to describe the internal damage development path and severe damage area (indicated by the shaded regions), as shown in Figures 9(a)–9(f).
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
As shown in Figure 9(a), because the initial void ratio of Zgrade mixture of 4.8% asphaltaggregate ratio is large, ice melts into water and penetrates into the interior of the asphalt mixture. The mixture is affected by the scouring and the frostheave force, so the damage evolution of the mixture is from the outside to the middle, and the middle damage is the most serious. Therefore, appropriately improving the quantity of coarse aggregate and fine aggregate can improve antifreezethaw performance. In Figure 9(b), the OAC for Zgrade asphalt mixture is 5.3%. The adhesion between asphalt and aggregate is good, but different distributing conditions of air voids and adhesion within the asphalt mixture lead to a slower advance rate of synchronous damage. Therefore, properly improving the quantity of medium and fine aggregates can improve antifreezethaw performance. As shown in Figure 9(c), as Zgrade mixture has higher asphalt content, most of the aggregates are in suspension. During the freezethaw process, the internal frostheave force is uneven, and its internal damage is relatively serious. Therefore, appropriately reducing the amount of asphalt can improve the antifreezethaw performance. In Figure 9(d), due to the low asphalt content, Sgrade mixture of 4.8% asphaltaggregate ratio fails to form a dense structure inside the structure, and its severely damaged area is similar to Zgrade mixture. Therefore, the amount of asphalt should be appropriately increased to improve the antifreezethaw performance. In Figure 9(e), as for Sgrade mixture of 5.3% asphaltaggregate ratio, the frostheave effect and the change in porosity cause more damage to the mixture than the coarse aggregate structure with the increase of the number of freezethaw cycles. Moisture damage develops from the inside to the outside. Therefore, the quantity of asphalt and fine aggregate is to be appropriately improved to delay the mass loss of fine aggregate and antifreezethaw performance. In Figure 9(f), Sgrade mixture is in an over compact state, and it is severely damaged except for the outermost layer. Therefore, appropriately reducing the quantity of asphalt and fine aggregate can improve the freezethaw resistance.
5. Conclusions
(1)Based on the splitting performance of the asphalt mixtures, the freezethaw damage development mechanism of the asphalt mixture was built, and the damage degree D_{Tn} was defined. The splitting performance of the asphalt mixture decreases with the number of freezethaw cycles. The damage evolution equation was established based on the first order difference method, in which the freezethaw damage evolution was discontinuous. The progress of the freezethaw damage can be divided into three stages, i.e., the rapid damage stage, the stable damage stage, and the developing damage stage.(2)For Zgrade mixture, the split freezethaw damage D_{Tn} of the 5.8%asphaltaggregate ratio mixture is 67.19% after the 18th freezethaw cycle, which is 6.55% and 6.05% lower than the other two types of mixtures. For the Sgrade mixture, the split freezethaw damage D_{Tn} of the 5.8%asphaltaggregateratio mixture is 60.53% after the 18th freezethaw cycle, which is 5.58% and 9.8% lower than the other two types of mixtures, respectively. Ordinarily, a smaller damage degree value means a preferable antifreezethaw property, indicating that the increasing asphaltaggregate ratio has a significant influence on the antifreezethaw property of the asphalt mixture. The freezethaw damage evolution of Zgrade mixtures is basically consistent with that of Sgrade mixtures, but when the asphaltaggregate ratio and the number of freezethaw cycles are the same, the damage degree of Sgrade mixture has a maximum reduction of 11.8% compared to the damage degree of Zgrade mixture, which indicates that the mixture with similar skeleton dense structure has better antifreezethaw property. Therefore, when the asphaltaggregate ratio is 5.8% and the gradation is a skeleton dense structure, the asphalt mixture has the best freezethaw resistance.(3)Based on the damage degree, a physical probability freezethaw damage model for the asphalt mixtures was built, the physical significance of various parameters (the shape parameter α, the scale factor λ, and the gradient factor ν) in the model was analyzed, and the uneven damage development processes of different types of the asphalt mixtures were analyzed. The asphaltaggregate ratio and the gradation affect the damage development process of the asphalt mixture under the freezethaw cycle. The asphalt mixtures with different asphaltaggregate ratios and gradation types can have similar freezethaw damage development paths.(4)For Zgrade mixtures, when the asphaltaggregate ratio is 4.8% or 5.3%, the antifreezethaw performance of the asphalt mixture can be improved by improving the quantity of medium and fine aggregates. When the asphaltaggregate ratio is 5.8%, because the asphalt content is high and the aggregate is in a suspended state, the quantity of asphalt can be appropriately reduced to improve the freezethaw resistance of the asphalt mixture.(5)For Sgrade mixtures, the skeleton dense structure is not formed at 4.8% asphaltaggregate ratio, and the freezethaw resistance of the asphalt mixture can be improved by increasing the quantity of the asphalt. In the case of 5.3% asphaltaggregate ratio, the quantity of asphalt and fine aggregate can be improved to delay the development of freezethaw damage. In the case of 5.8% asphaltaggregate ratio, the quantity of the asphalt and the fine aggregate can be appropriately reduced to improve its freezethaw resistance.
Data Availability
The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the first author upon request.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Authors’ Contributions
Yazhen Sun, Man Deng, and Huaizhi Zhang wrote the manuscript; Lin Gao, Youlin Ye, and Zuoxin Ma performed the tests and research; and Yazhen Sun and Huaizhi Zhang checked the manuscript.
Acknowledgments
This research was performed at the Shenyang Jianzhu University and Institute of Transportation Engineering of Zhejiang University. The research was funded by the National Natural Science Fund (51478276) and Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province (2019ZD0667).
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Copyright © 2020 Yazhen Sun et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.