Advances in Civil Engineering / 2021 / Article / Fig 9

Research Article

Analysis of Ground Movement during Large-Scale Pipe Roof Installation and Artificial Ground Freezing of Gongbei Tunnel

Figure 9

Calculated values of i, k, smax, and η at the end of each pipe jacking. (a) Settlement trough width coefficient i. (b) Settlement trough width parameter k. (c) Maximum settlement Smax. (d) Ground loss ratio η.

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