Figure 2: The three factors contributing to performance improvement compared over 1 round of selection across three fitness functions using numerical simulations: threshold selection, stochastic proportionate selection (SPS), and deterministic proportionate selection (DPS). Each sample consisted of 100 simulated individuals with performance values drawn from a normal distribution with mean = 100, SD = 1. Markers show means, and bars show standard error over 100 samples. (Note that error bars are too small to extend beyond marker symbols.)