Figure 21: The qualitative functional decomposition derived for the evolved autonomous altitude gain controllers and steer controllers. Most of the steer controller’s wing kinematics can be decomposed with a typical CPG-like functional template shown in (a) as a closely coupled stroke and rotation oscillators with steady beat rate and steady amplitude. Most of the altitude gain controllers can be decomposed with the functional template shown in (b), with a dedicated stroke oscillator along with a saturated rotation control module.