Advances in Condensed Matter Physics

Volume 2019, Article ID 3084631, 5 pages

https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3084631

## Shubnikov–de Haas Oscillations in Semiconductors at the Microwave-Radiation Absorption

^{1}Namangan Engineering-Technology Institute, 160115 Namangan, Uzbekistan^{2}Namangan Engineering-Construction Institute, 160103 Namangan, Uzbekistan^{3}Physico-technical Institute, NGO “Physics-Sun”, Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, 100084 Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Correspondence should be addressed to U. I. Erkaboev; ur.liam@3891veobakre

Received 26 October 2018; Revised 2 December 2018; Accepted 6 December 2018; Published 1 January 2019

Academic Editor: Yuri Galperin

Copyright © 2019 G. Gulyamov et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

Mathematical models for the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in semiconductors are obtained at the microwave-radiation absorption and its temperature dependence. Three-dimensional image of microwave magnetoabsorption oscillations in narrow-gap semiconductors is established. Using a mathematical model, the oscillations of the microwave magnetoabsorption are considered for different values of the electromagnetic field. The results of calculations are compared with experimental data. The proposed model explains the experimental results in HgSe at different temperatures.

#### 1. Introduction

In recent years, quantum oscillation phenomena in the presence of a strong electromagnetic field and temperature have become a subject of intense experimental [1–5] and theoretical research [6–8]. With the help of such phenomena, some basic physical quantities can be determined (effective mass of charge carriers, magnetoresistance, magnetic susceptibility, etc.) and the band energy spectra of electrons in new semiconductor materials can be studied.

The Shubnikov-de Haas and de Haas-van Alphen oscillations and the quantum Hall effect were detected at ultralow temperatures and ultrastrong magnetic fields [9]. In this case, oscillation phenomena were observed in massive semiconductors and metals.

Currently, interest in the oscillation of Shubnikov-de Haas in semiconductors is increased at the microwave-radiation absorption. In particular, the work in [10] considered Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in HgSe samples with different concentrations of impurities of Fe at low temperatures and strong microwave fields. In this work, dependence oscillations of the derivative power microwave-radiation absorption P by the magnetic field strength H () on the reverse magnetic field in narrow-gap semiconductors were observed at values of the impurity concentrations.

As is known, all quantum oscillation phenomena strongly depended on the spectral density of states in semiconductors. In [11–13], temperature dependence of the spectral density of energy states in narrow-gap semiconductors was investigated in the quantizing magnetic fields. But, in these works, the influences of absorption of microwave on quantum oscillations phenomena in semiconductors are not considered.

The aim of the present article is to develop mathematical modeling of the temperature dependence of magnetoabsorption microwave oscillations in semiconductors and into the influence temperature of a sample on the results of experimental data processing.

#### 2. The Theoretical Part

##### 2.1. Calculation of Temperature Dependence of the Spectral Density of States Oscillations with the Help of Gaussian Distribution

In [14], spectral density of energy states oscillations in narrow-gap semiconductors is investigated. The following expression is received for the density of states:

Here, is spectral density of states for the conduction band with the Kane dispersion law, H is magnetic field strength, Е is energy of a free electron and hole in a quantizing magnetic field, N is number of Landau levels, and is band gap of semiconductor. This formula is applicable only for narrow-gap () materials.

If the energy spectrum of electrons is discrete, then the density of energy states is equal to the sum of -functions, concentrated at the points of the spectrum (N is number of discrete levels) [15–17]:

In the general case, the energy density of states is a set of -functional peaks, located at from each other in a quantizing magnetic field [16]. In this expression, the temperature-induced broadening of the energy levels is disregarded. In order to take into account the temperature dependence of the density of states, we expand (E,T) into series with respect to Gauss functions. We then obtain the density of energy states depending on temperature. The Gaussian distribution for the energy levels* E*_{N} is determined by the following expression [9]:

Here, is Gaussian distribution function.

At low temperatures (), the Gauss function will turn into a delta Dirac function. Thermal broadening of the levels in a magnetic field gives rise to the smoothing of discrete levels. Thermal broadening is to be taken into account using a Gauss function. The density of states depends on temperature; as in [11–14], we expand (E,T) into series with respect to Gauss functions. Using expressions (1), (2), and (3), we obtain the following expressions for the temperature dependence of the spectral density of states in narrow-gap semiconductors:

Making a summation using formula (4), we obtain (E,H,T) depending on temperature. For narrow-gap semiconductors, this expression at turns into (1). In this case, Landau levels appear sharply. With increasing temperature, sudden bursts begin to smooth out. At high temperatures, the density of states turns into a continuous spectrum and the influence of a magnetic field will not be felt. This allows us to obtain a density of states, which depends on temperature.

Using this formula, the temperature dependence of the quantum oscillations phenomena in narrow-gap semiconductors can be explained.

##### 2.2. Mathematical Modeling of Shubnikov-de Haas Oscillations in Narrow-Gap Semiconductors at the Temperature and Microwave-Radiation Absorption

Consider the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in narrow-gap semiconductors at the temperature and a strong electromagnetic field. Per unit volume, the power of microwave field is determined by the following expression [18]:

Here, is conductivity of semiconductor; is electric field strength of a wave.

Consider the dependence of the longitudinal resistance on the magnetic field and temperature in semiconductors. In this case, for each Landau level, you can enter your Boltzmann distribution function and your relaxation time . The distribution function satisfies the kinetic equation [19]:

The current associated with the Nth quantum level can be calculated in the usual way:

Here, is transport relaxation time. The transport relaxation time is taken as follows: . The exponent has different values for different scattering mechanisms. For example, in the case of scattering on acoustic vibrations and impurity ions, the exponent is* -1/2* and* 3/2* [20]. - is not dependent on the electron energy. To study the temperature dependence of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations, can be replaced by a Gaussian distribution function. From here, we determine the temperature dependence of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in a quantizing magnetic field:

For unit volume of semiconductors the following condition is performed: . Here, is specific longitudinal magnetoresistance.

Substituting expressions (4) and (8) in (5), we obtain the following expression:

Differentiating (9) by* H*, that is, , we obtain expressions for the dependence of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations on the microwave-radiation absorption and temperature in narrow-band semiconductors:

Here, is power of microwave field for the model of Kane.

Thus, we have the opportunity calculation oscillations at the strong electromagnetic field and at different temperatures, with the help of formula (10).

Let us consider the analysis of quantum oscillation phenomena in semiconductors, with the help of reduced model. In particular, we obtain the graph oscillations for InSb, using formula (10). In Figure 1, dependence of on the magnetic field strength H in InSb () [21] at Т=3К is shown. In this case, . At the increased power of electromagnetic wave amplitude oscillation is increased.