Loss of CDC4/FBXW7 in Gastric Carinoma
Background: CDC4/FBXW7, encoding a ubiquitin ligase, maps to 4q32 and has been implicated as a tumor suppressor gene and therapeutic target in many tumor types. Mutations in colonic adenomas, and the frequent losses on 4q described in gastric cancer prompt speculation about the role of CDC4/FBXW7 in gastric carcinogenesis.Methods: We assessed the role of CDC4/FBXW7 in gastric cancer, through loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) on 47 flow-sorted gastric carcinomas including early-onset gastric cancers (EOGC) and xenografted conventional gastric carcinomas. Ploidy analysis was carried out on 39 EOGCs and immunohistochemistry of CDC4/FBXW7 and its substrates c-myc, c-jun, Notch and cyclin E was performed on 204 gastric carcinomas using tissue microarrays (TMAs). Sequence analysis of CDC4/FBXW7 was carried out on gastric carcinoma cell lines and xenografts.Results: Loss of heterozygosity of CDC4/FBXW7 occurred in 32% of EOGCs, and correlated with loss of expression in 26%. Loss of expression was frequent in both EOGC and conventional gastric cancers. No CDC4/FBXW7 mutations were found and loss of CDC4/FBXW7 did not correlate with ploidy status. There was a significant correlation between loss of CDC4/FBXW7 expression and upregulation of c-myc.Conclusions: Loss of CDC4/FBXW7 appears to play a role in both EOGC and conventional gastric carcinogenesis, and c-myc overexpression is likely to be an important oncogenic consequence of CDC4/FBXW7 loss.