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Analytical Cellular Pathology
Volume 35 (2012), Issue 5-6, Pages 363-374
Review Article

Modern Trends in Imaging XI: Impedance Measurements in the Biomedical Sciences

Frederick D. Coffman1 and Stanley Cohen2

1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UMDNJ–New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA
2Center for Biophysical Pathology, UMDNJ–New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA

Copyright © 2012 Hindawi Publishing Corporation and the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Biological organisms and their component organs, tissues and cells have unique electrical impedance properties. Impedance properties often change with changes in structure, composition, and metabolism, and can be indicative of the onset and progression of disease states. Over the past 100 years, instruments and analytical methods have been developed to measure the impedance properties of biological specimens and to utilize these measurements in both clinical and basic science settings. This chapter will review the applications of impedance measurements in the biomedical sciences, from whole body analysis to impedance measurements of single cells and cell monolayers, and how cellular impedance measuring instruments can now be used in high throughput screening applications.