Research Article

Ex Vivo Nicotine Stimulation Augments the Efficacy of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell-Derived Dendritic Cell Vaccination via Activating Akt-S6 Pathway

Figure 5

The treatment with nicotine induces Akt-S6 pathway activation in human semimature DCs. (a–c) Human PBMC-derived semimature DCs were stimulated with nicotine (10−7 mol/L) for 15 min and the phosphorylation of Akt and ribosomal protein S6 was determined by flow cytometry (a), Western blotting (b), and confocal microscope analyses (c), respectively. One representative from 3 independent experiments is shown. Numbers in histogram indicated mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of test samples. Data were given as mean ± SEM, Student -test, . Ni: nicotine.