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Analytical Cellular Pathology
Volume 2016, Article ID 6146595, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6146595
Review Article

Role of Natural Radiosensitizers and Cancer Cell Radioresistance: An Update

1Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), The University of Lahore, Pakistan
2Center for Research in Molecular Medicine (CRiMM), The University of Lahore, Pakistan
3University College of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Lahore, Pakistan
4Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Received 8 January 2016; Accepted 1 February 2016

Academic Editor: Francesco Marampon

Copyright © 2016 Arif Malik et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cancer originates from genetic mutations accumulation. Cancer stem cells have been depicted as tumorigenic cells that can differentiate and self-renew. Cancer stem cells are thought to be resistant to conventional therapy like chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy damage carcinomic DNA cells. Because of the ability of cancer stem cells to self-renew and reproduce malignant tumors, they are the subject of intensive research. In this review, CSCs radioresistant mechanisms which include DNA damage response and natural radiosensitizers have been summed up. Reactive oxygen species play an important role in different physiological processes. ROS scavenging is responsible for regulation of reactive oxygen species generation. A researcher has proved that microRNAs regulate tumor radiation resistance. Ionizing radiation does not kill the cancer cells; rather, IR just slows down the signs and symptoms. Ionizing radiation damages DNA directly/indirectly. IR is given mostly in combination with other chemo/radiotherapies. We briefly described here the behavior of cancer stem cells and radioresistance therapies in cancer treatment. To overcome radioresistance in treatment of cancer, strategies like fractionation modification, treatment in combination, inflammation modification, and overcoming hypoxic tumor have been practiced. Natural radiosensitizers, for example, curcumin, genistein, and quercetin, are more beneficial than synthetic compounds.