Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Analytical Cellular Pathology
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 6146595, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6146595
Review Article

Role of Natural Radiosensitizers and Cancer Cell Radioresistance: An Update

1Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), The University of Lahore, Pakistan
2Center for Research in Molecular Medicine (CRiMM), The University of Lahore, Pakistan
3University College of Medicine and Dentistry, The University of Lahore, Pakistan
4Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Received 8 January 2016; Accepted 1 February 2016

Academic Editor: Francesco Marampon

Copyright © 2016 Arif Malik et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. M. Reiman, K. L. Knutson, and D. C. Radisky, “Immune promotion of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and generation of breast cancer stem cells,” Cancer Research, vol. 70, no. 8, pp. 3005–3008, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. Valent, D. Bonnet, R. De Maria et al., “Cancer stem cell definitions and terminology: the devil is in the details,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 767–775, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Krause, A. Yaromina, W. Eicheler, U. Koch, and M. Baumann, “Cancer stem cells: targets and potential biomarkers for radiotherapy,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 17, no. 23, pp. 7224–7229, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. Bao, Q. Wu, R. E. McLendon et al., “Glioma stem cells promote radioresistance by preferential activation of the DNA damage response,” Nature, vol. 444, no. 7120, pp. 756–760, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. S. Chen, W. A. Woodward, F. Behbod et al., “Wnt/β-catenin mediates radiation resistance of Sca1+ progenitors in an immortalized mammary gland cell line,” Journal of Cell Science, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 468–477, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. W. A. Woodward, M. S. Chen, F. Behbod, M. P. Alfaro, T. A. Buchholz, and J. M. Rosen, “WNT/β-catenin mediates radiation resistance of mouse mammary progenitor cells,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 618–623, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. M. Harris, V. Esain, G. M. Frechette et al., “Glucose metabolism impacts the spatiotemporal onset and magnitude of HSC induction in vivo,” Blood, vol. 121, no. 13, pp. 2483–2493, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. Hernández-García, C. D. Wood, S. Castro-Obregón, and L. Covarrubias, “Reactive oxygen species: a radical role in development?” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 130–143, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. R. Hom, R. A. Quintanilla, D. L. Hoffman et al., “The permeability transition pore controls cardiac mitochondrial maturation and myocyte differentiation,” Developmental Cell, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 469–478, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. M. Holmström and T. Finkel, “Cellular mechanisms and physiological consequences of redox-dependent signalling,” Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 411–421, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. Liang and S. Ghaffari, “Stem cells, redox signaling, and stem cell aging,” Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 1902–1916, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. P. Gomes, N. L. Price, A. J. Y. Ling et al., “Declining NAD+ induces a pseudohypoxic state disrupting nuclear mitochondrial communication during aging,” Cell, vol. 155, no. 7, pp. 1624–1638, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L. Mouchiroud, R. H. Houtkooper, N. Moullan et al., “The NAD+/sirtuin pathway modulates longevity through activation of mitochondrial UPR and FOXO signaling,” Cell, vol. 154, no. 2, pp. 430–441, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. Rimmelé, C. L. Bigarella, R. Liang et al., “Aging-like phenotype and defective lineage specification in SIRT1-deleted hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells,” Stem Cell Reports, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 44–59, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. B. Beckman and B. N. Ames, “The free radical theory of aging matures,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 547–581, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. Harman, “Free radical theory of aging: dietary implications,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 839–843, 1972. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. W. Dröge, “Aging-related changes in the thiol/disulfide redox state: implications for the use of thiol antioxidants,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 37, no. 12, pp. 1333–1345, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. Takubo, G. Nagamatsu, C. I. Kobayashi et al., “Regulation of glycolysis by Pdk functions as a metabolic checkpoint for cell cycle quiescence in hematopoietic stem cells,” Cell Stem Cell, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 49–61, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. W.-M. Yu, X. Liu, J. Shen et al., “Metabolic regulation by the mitochondrial phosphatase PTPMT1 is required for hematopoietic stem cell differentiation,” Cell Stem Cell, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 62–74, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Zhang, I. Khvorostov, J. S. Hong et al., “UCP2 regulates energy metabolism and differentiation potential of human pluripotent stem cells,” The EMBO Journal, vol. 30, no. 24, pp. 4860–4873, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. B. Dansen, L. M. M. Smits, M. H. van Triest et al., “Redox-sensitive cysteines bridge p300/CBP-mediated acetylation and FoxO4 activity,” Nature Chemical Biology, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 664–672, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Z. Guo, S. Kozlov, M. F. Lavin, M. D. Person, and T. T. Paull, “ATM activation by oxidative stress,” Science, vol. 330, no. 6003, pp. 517–521, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. S. Velu, S. K. Niture, C. E. Doneanu, N. Pattabiraman, and K. S. Srivenugopal, “Human p53 is inhibited by glutathionylation of cysteines present in the proximal DNA-Binding domain during oxidative stress,” Biochemistry, vol. 46, no. 26, pp. 7765–7780, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. Anastasiou, G. Poulogiannis, J. M. Asara et al., “Inhibition of pyruvate kinase M2 by reactive oxygen species contributes to cellular antioxidant responses,” Science, vol. 334, no. 6060, pp. 1278–1283, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. K. Brunelle, E. L. Bell, N. M. Quesada et al., “Pxygen sensing requires mitochondrial ROS but not oxidative phosphorylation,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 409–414, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. D. D. Sarbassov and D. M. Sabatini, “Redox regulation of the nutrient-sensitive raptor-mTOR pathway and complex,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 280, no. 47, pp. 39505–39509, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. K. De Bock, M. Georgiadou, S. Schoors et al., “Role of PFKFB3-driven glycolysis in vessel sprouting,” Cell, vol. 154, no. 3, pp. 651–663, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. P. Gut and E. Verdin, “The nexus of chromatin regulation and intermediary metabolism,” Nature, vol. 502, no. 7472, pp. 489–498, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. R. Lew and D. R. Tolan, “Aldolase sequesters WASP and affects WASP/Arp2/3-stimulated actin dynamics,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 114, no. 8, pp. 1928–1939, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. G. Sutendra, A. Kinnaird, P. Dromparis et al., “A nuclear pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is important for the generation of acetyl-CoA and histone acetylation,” Cell, vol. 158, no. 1, pp. 84–97, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. W. Yang, Y. Xia, H. Ji et al., “Nuclear PKM2 regulates β-catenin transactivation upon EGFR activation,” Nature, vol. 480, no. 7375, pp. 118–122, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. Y. Dai and S. Grant, “New insights into checkpoint kinase 1 in the DNA damage response signaling network,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 376–383, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. Anuranjani and M. Bala, “Concerted action of Nrf2-ARE pathway, MRN complex, HMGB1 and inflammatory cytokines—implication in modification of radiation damage,” Redox Biology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 832–846, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. V. Stagni, V. Oropallo, G. Fianco, M. Antonelli, I. Cinà, and D. Barilà, “Tug of war between survival and death: exploring ATM function in cancer,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 5388–5409, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. V. Stagni, S. Santini, and D. Barilà, “ITCH E3 ligase in ATM network,” Oncoscience, vol. 1, pp. 394–395, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. D. M. Allen, H. van Praag, J. Ray et al., “Ataxia telangiectasia mutated is essential during adult neurogenesis,” Genes and Development, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 554–566, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Kim and P. K. Y. Wong, “Loss of ATM impairs proliferation of neural stem cells through oxidative stress-mediated p38 MAPK signaling,” STEM CELLS, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 1987–1998, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. Kim, J. Hwangbo, and P. K. Y. Wong, “P38 mapk-mediated bmi-1 down-regulation and defective proliferation in atm-deficient neural stem cells can be restored by akt activation,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 1, Article ID e16615, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. L. Carlessi, L. De Filippis, D. Lecis, A. Vescovi, and D. Delia, “DNA-damage response, survival and differentiation in vitro of a human neural stem cell line in relation to ATM expression,” Cell Death and Differentiation, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 795–806, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. F. Bernassola, M. Karin, A. Ciechanover, and G. Melino, “The HECT family of E3 ubiquitin ligases: multiple players in cancer development,” Cancer Cell, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 10–21, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. E. van Schooneveld, H. Wildiers, I. Vergote, P. B. Vermeulen, L. Y. Dirix, and S. J. Van Laere, “Dysregulation of micro RNAs in breasts cancer and their potential role as prognostic and predictive biomarkers in patient management,” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 17, article 21, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  42. D. Yan, W. L. Ng, X. Zhang et al., “Targeting DNA-PKcs and ATM with miR-101 sensitizes tumors to radiation,” PLoS ONE, vol. 5, no. 7, Article ID e11397, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. Qu, Z. Liang, J. Huang et al., “MiR-205 determines the radioresistance of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma by directly targeting PTEN,” Cell Cycle, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 785–796, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Grosso, J. Doyen, S. K. Parks et al., “MiR-210 promotes a hypoxic phenotype and increases radioresistance in human lung cancer cell lines,” Cell Death & Disease, vol. 4, no. 3, article e544, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. Svoboda, J. Sana, P. Fabian et al., “MicroRNA expression profile associated with response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer patients,” Radiation Oncology, vol. 7, article 195, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. Mognato and L. Celotti, “MicroRNAs used in combination with anti-cancer treatments can enhance therapy efficacy,” Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 15, no. 13, pp. 1052–1062, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. E. J. Hall, “Cancer caused by x-rays—a random event?” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 369–370, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. C. Begg, F. A. Stewart, and C. Vens, “Strategies to improve radiotherapy with targeted drugs,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 239–253, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. R. Baskar, “Emerging role of radiation induced bystander effects: cell communications and carcinogenesis,” Genome Integrity, vol. 1, article 13, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. B. J. Blyth and P. J. Sykes, “Radiation-induced bystander effects: what are they, and how relevant are they to human radiation exposures?” Radiation Research, vol. 176, no. 2, pp. 139–157, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. R.-A. M. Panganiban, A. L. Snow, and R. M. Day, “Mechanisms of radiation toxicity in transformed and non-transformed cells,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 15931–15958, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. Najafi, R. Fardid, G. Hadadi, and M. Fardid, “The mechanisms of radiation-induced bystander effect,” Journal of Biomedical Physics and Engineering, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 163–172, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  53. J.-P. Coppe, P.-Y. Desprez, A. Krtolica, and J. Campisi, “The senescence-associated secretory phenotype: the dark side of tumor suppression,” Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease, vol. 5, pp. 99–118, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. R. Davalos, J.-P. Coppe, J. Campisi, and P.-Y. Desprez, “Senescent cells as a source of inflammatory factors for tumor progression,” Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 273–283, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. T. Kumazaki, R. S. Robetorye, S. C. Robetorye, and J. R. Smith, “Fibronectin expression increases during in vitro cellular senescence: correlation with increased cell area,” Experimental Cell Research, vol. 195, no. 1, pp. 13–19, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. R. J. Sabin and R. M. Anderson, “Cellular Senescence-its role in cancer and the response to ionizing radiation,” Genome Integrity, vol. 2, article 7, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. E. Mladenov, S. Magin, A. Soni, and G. Iliakis, “DNA double-strand break repair as determinant of cellular radiosensitivity to killing and target in radiation therapy,” Frontiers in Oncology, vol. 3, article 113, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. F. M. Di Maggio, L. Minafra, G. I. Forte et al., “Portrait of inflammatory response to ionizing radiation treatment,” Journal of Inflammation, vol. 12, article 14, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. Y. Meng, E. V. Efimova, K. W. Hamzeh et al., “Radiation-inducible immunotherapy for cancer: senescent tumor cells as a cancer vaccine,” Molecular Therapy, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 1046–1055, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. Y. R. Meng, M. A. Beckett, H. Liang et al., “Blockade of tumor necrosis factor α signaling in tumor-associated macrophages as a radiosensitizing strategy,” Cancer Research, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 1534–1543, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. S. C. Formenti and S. Demaria, “Combining radiotherapy and cancer immunotherapy: a paradigm shift,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 256–265, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus