Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Autoimmune Diseases
Volume 2011, Article ID 189585, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/189585
Review Article

Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: Family Stories

1Institute of Liver Studies, King’s College London School of Medicine at King’s College Hospital, Denmark Hill Campus, London SE5 9RS, UK
24th Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School of Aristotle University, Hippocration General Hospital of Thessaloniki, 49 Konstantinopoleos Street, Thessaloniki 54642, Greece
3Department of Medicine and Research Laboratory of Internal Medicine, University of Thessaly Medical School, Thessaly, Mezourlo, Larissa 41222, Greece

Received 10 December 2010; Revised 9 February 2011; Accepted 7 March 2011

Academic Editor: I. R. Mackay

Copyright © 2011 Daniel Smyk et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Citations to this Article [32 citations]

The following is the list of published articles that have cited the current article.

  • Daniel S. Smyk, Maria G. Mytilinaiou, Piotr Milkiewicz, Eirini I. Rigopoulou, Pietro Invernizzi, and Dimitrios P. Bogdanos, “Towards systemic sclerosis and away from primary biliary cirrhosis: the case of PTPN22,” Autoimmunity Highlights, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Daniel S. Smyk, Eirini I. Rigopoulou, Ana Lleo, Robin D. Abeles, Athanasios Mavropoulos, Charalambos Billinis, Pietro Invernizzi, and Dimitrios P. Bogdanos, “Immunopathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis: An old wives' tale,” Immunity and Ageing, vol. 8, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Manila Candusso, Dimitrios P. Bogdanos, Raffaele Iorio, Giuliano Torre, Pietro Invernizzi, Maria Grazia Alessio, Daniel S. Smyk, Ana Lleo, Aurelio Sonzogni, and Luca Fabris, “Autoimmune hepatitis type 2 associated with an unexpected and transient presence of primary biliary cirrhosis-specific antimitochondrial antibodies: a case study and review of the literature,” Bmc Gastroenterology, vol. 12, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Dimitrios P. Bogdanos, Daniel S. Smyk, Eirini I. Rigopoulou, Maria G. Mytilinaiou, Michael A. Heneghan, Carlo Selmi, and M. Eric Gershwin, “Twin studies in autoimmune disease: Genetics, gender and environment,” Journal Of Autoimmunity, vol. 38, no. 2-3, pp. J156–J169, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Daniel S. Smyk, Dimitrios P. Bogdanos, Stephen Kriese, Charalambos Billinis, Andrew K. Burroughs, and Eirini I. Rigopoulou, “Urinary tract infection as a risk factor for autoimmune liver disease: From bench to bedside,” Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 110–121, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Baodong Qin, Yan Liang, Zaixing Yang, and Renqian Zhong, “Effect of the polymorphisms of tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene on the susceptibility to primary biliary cirrhosis: a meta-analysis,” European Journal Of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 1386–1392, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Patrick S.C. Leung, Kit Lam, Mark J. Kurth, Ross L. Coppel, and M. Eric Gershwin, “Xenobiotics and autoimmunity: does acetaminophen cause primary biliary cirrhosis?,” Trends in Molecular Medicine, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 577–582, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Malgorzata Milkiewicz, Llorenç Caballería, Daniel S. Smyk, and Piotr Milkiewicz, “Predicting and preventing autoimmunity: the case of anti-mitochondrial antibodies,” Autoimmunity Highlights, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 105–112, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Andreas L. Koutsoumpas, Stephen Kriese, and Eirini I. Rigopoulou, “Popular and unpopular infectious agents linked to primary biliary cirrhosis,” Autoimmunity Highlights, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 95–104, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Daniel S. Smyk, Dimitrios P. Bogdanos, Albert Pares, Christos Liaskos, Charalambos Billinis, Andrew K. Burroughs, and Eirini I. Rigopoulou, “Tuberculosis Is Not a Risk Factor for Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: A Review of the Literature,” Tuberculosis Research and Treatment, vol. 2012, pp. 1–10, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Eirini I. Rigopoulou, Daniel S. Smyk, Claire E. Matthews, Charalambos Billinis, Andrew K. Burroughs, Marco Lenzi, and Dimitrios P. Bogdanos, “Epstein-barr virus as a trigger of autoimmune liver diseases,” Advances in Virology, vol. 2012, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Daniel S. Smyk, Eirini I. Rigopoulou, Albert Pares, Charalambos Billinis, Andrew K. Burroughs, Luigi Muratori, Pietro Invernizzi, and Dimitrios P. Bogdanos, “Sex Differences Associated with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis,” Clinical and Developmental Immunology, vol. 2012, pp. 1–11, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Daniel Smyk, Eirini I. Rigopoulou, Yoh Zen, Robin Daniel Abeles, Charalambos Billinis, Albert Pares, and Dimitrios P. Bogdanos, “Role for mycobacterial infection in pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis?,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 18, no. 35, pp. 4855–4865, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Qianjun Li, Bingjian Wang, Feng Pan, Rui Zhang, Lingyan Xiao, Huimin Guo, Shijie Ma, and Chuanwen Zhou, “Association between cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 gene polymorphisms and primary biliary cirrhosis in Chinese population: data from a multicenter study,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 1397–1402, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Dimitrios P. Bogdanos, Daniel S. Smyk, Pietro Invernizzi, Eirini I. Rigopoulou, Miri Blank, Shideh Pouria, and Yehuda Shoenfeld, “Infectome: A platform to trace infectious triggers of autoimmunity,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 726–740, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Dimitrios P. Bogdanos, Daniel S. Smyk, Pietro Invernizzi, Eirini I. Rigopoulou, Miri Blank, Lazaros Sakkas, Shideh Pouria, and Yehuda Shoenfeld, “Tracing environmental markers of autoimmunity: introducing the infectome,” Immunologic Research, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Patrick S.C. Leung, Jinjun Wang, Phornnop Naiyanetr, Thomas P. Kenny, Kit S. Lam, Mark J. Kurth, and M. Eric Gershwin, “Environment and primary biliary cirrhosis: Electrophilic drugs and the induction of AMA,” Journal of Autoimmunity, vol. 41, pp. 79–86, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Daniel S. Smyk, Eirini I. Rigopoulou, and Dimitrios P. Bogdanos, “Potential roles for infectious agents in the pathophysiology of primary biliary cirrhosis: What's new?,” Current Infectious Disease Reports, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 14–24, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Rodrigo Liberal, Charlotte R. Grant, Lazaros Sakkas, Nicola Bizzaro, and Dimitrios P. Bogdanos, “Diagnostic and clinical significance of anti-centromere antibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis,” Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 572–585, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Timoklia Orfanidou, Pietro Invernizzi, Dimitrios P. Bogdanos, and Marco Lenzi, “Vitamin D in autoimmune liver disease,” Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 535–545, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Baodong Qin, Jiaqi Wang, Jia Chen, Yan Liang, Zaixing Yang, and Renqian Zhong, “Association of human leukocyte antigen class II with susceptibility to primary biliary cirrhosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 11, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • José M. Hermosillo-Sandoval, Adolfo D. Rodríguez-Carrizález, and Alejandra G. Miranda-Díaz, “Strategies in secondary biliary fibrosis,” Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, vol. 06, no. 08, pp. 10–18, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Wei-Ying Liu, Lin Xiao, Hao Yin, Xin-Yu Zhan, Ze-Gao Zhang, Xiao-Bo Lu, and Yue-Xin Zhang, “Clinical and pathological features of primary biliary cirrhosis in anti-mitochondria antibody/anti-mitochondrial antibody M2 subtype negative patients,” World Chinese Journal of Digestology, vol. 21, no. 34, pp. 3799–3805, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Daniele Saverino, Giampaola Pesce, Princey Antola, Brunetta Porcelli, Ignazio Brusca, Danilo Villalta, Marilina Tampoia, Renato Tozzoli, Elio Tonutti, Maria Grazia Alessio, Marcello Bagnasco, and Nicola Bizzaro, “High Levels of Soluble Ctla-4 Are Present in Anti-Mitochondrial Antibody Positive, but Not in Antibody Negative Patients with Primary Biliary Cirrhosis,” Plos One, vol. 9, no. 11, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Pietro Invernizzi, Patrick S. C. Leung, Xiong Ma, and M. Eric Gershwinpp. 253–279, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Vasiliy Ivanovich Reshetnyak, “Primary biliary cirrhosis: Clinical and laboratory criteria for its diagnosis,” World Journal Of Gastroenterology, vol. 21, no. 25, pp. 7683–7708, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Haiyan Zhang, Marco Carbone, Ana Lleo, and Pietro Invernizzi, “Geoepidemiology, Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for PBC,” Digestive Diseases, vol. 33, pp. 94–101, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Kaoru Omori, Kanako Yoshida, Masaki Yokota, Tsutomu Daa, and Masahiro Kan, “Familial occurrence of autoimmune liver disease with overlapping features of primary biliary cholangitis and autoimmune hepatitis in a mother and her daughter,” Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 312–318, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jinjun Wang, Guoxiang Yang, Alana Mari Dubrovsky, Jinjung Choi, and Patrick S.C. Leung, “Xenobiotics and loss of tolerance in primary biliary cholangitis,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 338–348, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Saeam Shin, In Ho Moh, Young Sik Woo, Sung Won Jung, Jin Bae Kim, Ji Won Park, Ki Tae Suk, Hyoung Su Kim, Mineui Hong, Sang Hoon Park, and Myung Seok Lee, “Evidence from a familial case suggests maternal inheritance of primary biliary cholangitis,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 23, no. 39, pp. 7191–7197, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ottar M. Bergmann, M. Eric Gershwin, Einar S. Björnsson, Kristjan T. Örnolfsson, and Sigurdur Olafsson, “Using the Icelandic genealogical database to define the familial risk of primary biliary cholangitis,” Hepatology, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 166–171, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Daniel S. Smyk, Athanasios Mavropoulos, Giorgina Mieli-Vergani, Diego Vergani, Marco Lenzi, and Dimitrios P. Bogdanos, “The Role of Invariant NKT in Autoimmune Liver Disease: Can Vitamin D Act as an Immunomodulator?,” Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 2018, pp. 1–14, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar