Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Autoimmune Diseases
Volume 2011, Article ID 213092, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/213092
Research Article

Inflammation and Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Are Common Features of Myasthenia Gravis Thymus: Possible Roles in Pathogenesis

1Department of Neurology IV, Neuromuscular Diseases and Neuroimmunology, Neurological Institute C. Besta Foundation, 20133 Milan, Italy
2Anatomia Patologica, Azienda Ospedaliera Bolognini Seriate, 24068 Seriate, Italy
3Unité Mixte de Recherche, CNRS UMR7215/INSERM U974/UPMC/AIM, Thérapie des Maladies du Muscle Strié, Centre Chirurgical Marie Lannelongue, 92350 Le Plessis Robinson, France

Received 30 May 2011; Accepted 23 June 2011

Academic Editor: Nils Erik Gilhus

Copyright © 2011 Paola Cavalcante et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Citations to this Article [21 citations]

The following is the list of published articles that have cited the current article.

  • Hans Helmut Niller, and Janos Minarovits, “EBV, autoimmunity and dual T-cell receptors,” Future Virology, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 217–220, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jean-François Bach, and Jean-Francois Bach, “The etiology of autoimmune diseases: The case of myasthenia gravis,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1274, no. 1, pp. 33–39, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Paola Cavalcante, Pia Bernasconi, and Renato Mantegazza, “Autoimmune mechanisms in myasthenia gravis,” Current Opinion in Neurology, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 621–629, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Huang, and Lo, “Correlation between acetylcholine receptor antibody levels and thymic pathology in myasthenia gravis: A review,” Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 209–217, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Cristian M. Ionita, and Gyula Acsadi, “Management of Juvenile Myasthenia Gravis,” Pediatric Neurology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 95–104, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • F. Jing, D. Wei, D. Wang, N. Li, F. Cui, F. Yang, and Z. Chen, “Lack of Epstein-Barr virus infection in Chinese myasthenia gravis patients,” Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, vol. 128, no. 5, pp. 345–350, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Perrine Cufi, Renato Mantegazza, Pia Bernasconi, Sonia Berrih-Aknin, Paola Cavalcante, and Rozen Le Panse, “Etiology of myasthenia gravis: Innate immunity signature in pathological thymus,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 863–874, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Marlies Keijzers, Gisela Nogales-Gadea, and Marc de Baets, “Clinical and scientific aspects of acetylcholine receptor myasthenia gravis,” Current Opinion in Neurology, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 552–557, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Juan Liu, Hong Qiu, Zhaorong Zhu, and Tangbin Zou, “Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects of Yinzhihuang injection,” Bio-Medical Materials And Engineering, vol. 26, pp. S2123–S2132, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Qian Li, Lihua Wang, Jianjian Wang, Huixue Zhang, Xue Shan, and Xiaotong Kong, “Altered expression of microRNA-27a-3p in the thymus tissue of patients with myasthenia gravis,” Chinese Journal of Neurology, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 302–306, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Paola Cavalcante, Barbara Galbardi, Sara Franzi, Stefania Marcuzzo, Claudia Barzago, Silvia Bonanno, Giorgia Camera, Lorenzo Maggi, Dimos Kapetis, Francesca Andreetta, Amelia Biasiucci, Teresio Motta, Carmelo Giardina, Carlo Antozzi, Fulvio Baggi, Renato Mantegazza, and Pia Bernasconi, “Increased expression of Toll-like receptors 7 and 9 in myasthenia gravis thymus characterized by active Epstein-Barr virus infection,” Immunobiology, vol. 221, no. 4, pp. 516–527, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Claudia Barzago, Pia Bernasconi, Lucia Mori, Paola Cavalcante, Kandhadayar Gopalan Srinivasan, Elisa Faggiani, Carlo Antozzi, Fulvio Baggi, Raffaele Adolfo Calogero, Renato Mantegazza, Francesca Zolezzi, Josephine Lum, Giorgia Camera, Silvia Bonanno, and Francesca Andreetta, “A novel infection- and inflammation-associated molecular signature in peripheral blood of myasthenia gravis patients,” Immunobiology, vol. 221, no. 11, pp. 1227–1236, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jeffrey T. Guptill, Madhu Soni, and Matthew N. Meriggioli, “Current Treatment, Emerging Translational Therapies, and New Therapeutic Targets for Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis,” Neurotherapeutics, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 118–131, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lorenzo Novellino, Fulvio Baggi, Carlo Antozzi, Fabio Conforti, Pia Bernasconi, Stefania Marcuzzo, Sara Franzi, Lorenzo Maggi, Teresio Motta, Luisella Spinelli, Paola Cavalcante, Tommaso Martino De Pas, Massimo Barberis, Renato Mantegazza, Barbara Galbardi, Raffaella Ghislandi, and Antonella Buzzi, “Epstein-Barr virus in tumor-infiltrating B cells of myasthenia gravis thymoma: An innocent bystander or an autoimmunity mediator?,” Oncotarget, vol. 8, no. 56, pp. 95432–95449, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Dan He, Min Zhang, Minghuan Wang, Bitao Bu, Wei Wang, Han Zhang, Jun Xiao, Xiaofan Zhang, Minjie Xie, Dengji Pan, and Xiang Luo, “Molecular and clinical relationship between live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccination and childhood onset myasthenia gravis,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 386–400, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jie Luo, and Jon M. Lindstrom, “Acetylcholine Receptor Structure,” Myasthenia Gravis and Related Disorders, pp. 13–45, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Georg A. Holländer, Adam E. Handel, and Sarosh R. Irani, “The role of thymic tolerance in CNS autoimmune disease,” Nature Reviews Neurology, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 723–734, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Fulvio Baggi, Renato Mantegazza, Claudia Barzago, Carlo Antozzi, Lorenzo Maggi, Pia Bernasconi, and Paola Cavalcante, “Toll-like receptors 7 and 9 in myasthenia gravis thymus: amplifiers of autoimmunity?,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1413, no. 1, pp. 11–24, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Francesco Albano, Eleonora Vecchio, Maurizio Renna, Enrico Iaccino, Selena Mimmi, Carmen Caiazza, Alessandro Arcucci, Angelica Avagliano, Valentina Pagliara, Giuseppe Donato, Camillo Palmieri, Massimo Mallardo, Ileana Quinto, and Giuseppe Fiume, “Insights into Thymus Development and Viral Thymic Infections,” Viruses, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 836, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Guofei Zhang, Zipu Yu, Gang Shen, Ying Chai, and Chengxiao Liang, “Association between Epstein-Barr virus and Thymic epithelial tumors: a systematic review,” Infectious Agents and Cancer, vol. 14, no. 1, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Gong, Zhang, Zhu, Han, Yao, Huang, Li, Li, Mou, Lu, Zhang, Tu, Wang, Wan, and Wang, “Detection of human parvovirus B19 infection in the thymus of patients with thymic hyperplasia-associated myasthenia gravis,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 109–109.e12, 2019. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar