Table 2: Upregulated genes in follicular hyperplasia, thymitis, and involuted thymus versus normal thymus identified by TaqMan low-density arrays (LDAs).

Gene symbolBiological functionFold changesa
HyperplasiaThymitisInvoluted

CSF1Cytokine3.61 (1.23)7.16 (2.78)*2.22 (1.15)
IL-1βCytokine11.29 (13.44)51.72 (30.57)*10.92 (10.92)
IL-6Cytokine29.56 (14.44)1621.00 (513.70)**72.60 (20.25)**
IL-10Cytokine5.93 (0.41)*7.64 (1.12)*7.14 (0.61)**
IL-12p35Cytokine4.09 (3.47)15.42 (6.55)*3.42 (2.11)
TNF-αCytokine2.97 (1.61)8.92 (2.95)*3.27 (1.10)
IFN-γCytokine2.21 (0.78)15.24 (4.89)*1.78 (2.30)
RANTESCytokine4.90 (1.07)*6.79 (1.26)*3.31 (0.95)
IL-7Growth factor5.25 (2.27)21.18 (8.36)*2.78 (0.92)
VEGF-AGrowth factor5.01 (2.57)20.07 (9.74)*4.62 (3.02)
IL-8Chemokine3.90 (3.25)16.22 (5.61)*3.57 (2.00)
CXCR3Chemokine receptor4.56 (0.50)*6.15 (1.19)*2.57 (0.70)
MCP-1Chemokine4.41 (1.36)31.08 (5.68)*20.53 (1.60)**
MIP-1αChemokine17.93 (11.38)35.01 (11.34)*16.11 (7.89)
CD19CD antigen4.37 (0.17)*6.91 (1.41)*3.51 (1.25)
CD86CD antigen1.82 (0.09)3.82 (1.52)*1.05 (0.44)
CD152CD antigen3.38 (0.49)7.87 (3.37)*2.97 (1.77)
HLA-DRαMHC Class II2.12 (0.39)4.15 (1.05)*1.58 (0.78)
C3Complement component10.66 (4.75)29.12 (6.87)*12.83 (10.88)
SMAD7Cell signaling2.53 (0.87)4.78 (0.62)**1.61 (1.06)
ECE1Metalloprotease2.57 (0.97)6.34 (2.51)*2.42 (1.51)

aFor each gene, mean fold change (±SD) for the different MG thymus subgroups compared to normal thymuses is given. Fold change was calculated from the formula ; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 (Bonferroni test). The genes in bold were further analysed by real-time RT-PCR.