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Research Article

A Prospective Study of Lupus and Rheumatoid Arthritis in Relation to Deployment in Support of Iraq and Afghanistan: The Millennium Cohort Study

Table 1

Baseline* characteristics of Millennium Cohort participants with newly reported lupus and rheumatoid arthritis (2001–2008).

CharacteristicsLupusRheumatoid arthritis
DiseaseNo diseaseDiseaseNo disease
n = 72,576n = 1,100n = 69,924
% % % %

Deployment
 Nondeployed7565.239,87454.974467.638,11154.5
 Deployed without combat2219.117,98524.717415.817,59425.2
 Deployed with combat§1815.714,71720.318216.614,21920.3
Sex
 Male5648.751,24070.676069.149,32170.5
 Female5951.321,33629.434030.920,60329.5
Birth year
 Before 19602219.113,68618.938134.612,62918.1
 1960–19694135.724,13133.347042.722,99632.9
 1970–19794135.724,02033.119717.923,64533.8
 1980 and later119.610,73914.8524.710,65415.2
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic white5850.451,61071.167361.249,88271.3
 Non-Hispanic black3227.88,72312.024422.28,21411.8
 Hispanic1311.34,8836.7908.24,7186.8
 Other1210.47,36010.1938.57,11010.2
Education
 High school or less6758.337,15351.257252.035,81551.2
 Some college2521.715,79721.829727.015,06121.5
 Bachelor’s or higher degree2320.019,62627.023121.019,04827.2
Marital status
 Married6657.442,52258.679372.140,51457.9
 Not married4942.630,05441.430727.929,41042.1
Service component
 Active duty6455.740,74556.164058.239,23556.1
 Reserve/Guard5144.431,83143.946041.830,68943.9
Military pay grade
 Enlisted9784.455,26276.193585.053,06875.9
 Officer1815.717,31423.916515.016,85624.1
Service branch
 Army6354.833,85646.761956.332,34946.3
 Air Force3026.121,55729.727224.720,92429.9
 Marine Corps43.53,8805.4433.93,7655.4
 Navy/Coast Guard1815.713,28318.316615.112,88618.4
Occupation
 Combat specialist1613.914,05819.418516.813,58819.4
 Health care specialist2320.08,25911.4908.28,05411.5
 Functional support3328.714,08519.429126.513,42819.2
 Electrical/mechanical1210.410,15614.015514.19,74413.9
 Service support108.76,4338.912511.46,1398.8
 Other2118.319,58527.025423.118,97127.1
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 Normal/underweight (<25)5648.729,52040.732029.128,79041.2
 Overweight (25 to <30)4539.135,87449.460454.934,44149.3
 Obese (≥30)1412.27,1829.917616.06,6939.6
Smoking status
 Nonsmoker6859.142,57258.755250.141,28559.0
 Past smoker2118.317,42524.032129.216,61323.8
 Current smoker2622.612,57917.322820.712,02617.2
Alcohol misuse
 No9179.158,90181.289481.356,76681.2
 Yes2420.913,67518.820618.713,15818.8
Mental component score
 >75th percentile2622.620,76028.629927.219,97428.6
 >50th to 75th percentile2723.517,75924.524822.617,16624.6
 >25th to 50th percentile2320.016,26622.418216.615,72122.5
 0 to 25th percentile3933.917,79124.537133.717,06324.4
Physical component score
 >75th percentile2017.420,30728.012411.319,75628.3
 >50th to 75th percentile2622.618,24525.116815.317,66425.3
 >25th to 50th percentile2219.117,13523.625623.316,55223.7
 0 to 25th percentile4740.916,88923.355250.215,95222.8
Chemical and/or biological warfare agents
 No10692.268,75094.796888.066,44695.0
 Yes, 1 or more times97.83,8265.313212.03,4785.0
Hazards requiring personal protective equipment
 No6556.531,62243.647643.330,55843.7
 Yes4640.039,42054.358453.137,92154.2
 Do not know43.51,5342.1403.61,4452.1
Routine skin contact with paint, solvents, substances
 No7464.450,43169.566960.848,91270.0
 Yes3328.719,27626.636333.02,7193.9
 Do not know87.02,8694.0686.22,7193.9
Microwaves (excluding microwave ovens)
 No8372.253,94274.371865.352,25374.7
 Yes2420.912,81817.723221.112,16517.4
 Do not know87.05,8168.015013.65,5067.9
Pesticides (creams, sprays, uniform treatments)
 No7161.746,50664.160655.145,09164.5
 Yes3530.419,65227.137834.418,70926.8
 Do not know97.86,4188.811610.66,1248.8
Pesticides (environment, living facilities)
 No6354.842.19458.152347.640,98558.6
 Yes3732.220,50828.341037.319,46227.8
 Do not know1513.09,87413.616715.29,47713.6

*Population excludes participants with missing baseline covariates, may not represent whole study population.
Percentages may not sum to 100 because of rounding.
Deployed in support of the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.
§ Self-report of personally witnessing or being exposed to a person’s death due to war or disaster, physical abuse, dead and/or decomposing bodies, maimed soldiers or civilians, prisoners of war, or refugees.
Alcohol misuse is defined as at least 1 positive response to the CAGE questions (i.e., Cutting down, Annoyance by criticism, Guilty feeling, and Eye-openers) [32, 33].

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