Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Autoimmune Diseases
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 563989, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/563989
Clinical Study

Early Onset Multiple Sclerosis Has Worse Prognosis Than Adult Onset Multiple Sclerosis Based on Cognition and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Department of Neurology, Dokuz Eylül University, Balçova, 35340 İzmir, Turkey

Received 14 July 2012; Accepted 16 October 2012

Academic Editor: Ricard Cervera

Copyright © 2012 Serkan Ozakbas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. F. Hanefeld, H. J. Bauer, H. J. Christen, B. Kruse, H. Bruhn, and J. Frahm, “Multiple sclerosis in childhood: report of 15 cases,” Brain and Development, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 410–416, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. E. Sindern, J. Haas, E. Stark, and U. Wurster, “Early onset MS under the age of 16: clinical and paraclinical features,” Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 280–284, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. F. Cole and C. A. Stuart, “A long perspective on childhood multiple sclerosis,” Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 661–666, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. I. L. Simone, D. Carrara, C. Tortorella et al., “Course and prognosis in early-onset MS: comparison with adult-onset forms,” Neurology, vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 1922–1928, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. Duquette, T. J. Murray, J. Pleines et al., “Multiple sclerosis in childhood: clinical profile in 125 patients,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 111, no. 3, pp. 359–363, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. Ghezzi, V. Deplano, J. Faroni et al., “Multiple sclerosis in childhood: clinical features of 149 cases,” Multiple Sclerosis, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 43–46, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Boiko, G. Vorobeychik, D. Paty et al., “Early onset multiple sclerosis: a longitudinal study,” Neurology, vol. 59, no. 7, pp. 1006–1010, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Ozakbas, E. Idiman, B. Baklan, and B. Yulug, “Childhood and juvenile onset multiple sclerosis: clinical and paraclinical features,” Brain and Development, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 233–236, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. F. A. Hanefeld, “Characteristics of childhood multiple sclerosis,” The International MS Journal, vol. 3, pp. 91–98, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  10. J. A. Bobholz and S. M. Rao, “Cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis: a review of recent developments,” Current Opinion in Neurology, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 283–288, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. P. Amato, B. Goretti, A. Ghezzi et al., “Cognitive and psychosocial features of childhood and juvenile MS,” Neurology, vol. 70, no. 20, pp. 1891–1897, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. M. E. Bye, B. Kendall, and J. Wilson, “Multiple sclerosis in childhood: a new look,” Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 215–222, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. C. Dale, C. De Sousa, W. K. Chong, T. C. S. Cox, B. Harding, and B. G. R. Neville, “Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis in children,” Brain, vol. 123, no. 12, pp. 2407–2422, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Ghezzi, C. Pozzilli, M. Liguori et al., “Prospective study of multiple sclerosis with early onset,” Multiple Sclerosis, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 115–118, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. W. I. McDonald, A. Compston, G. Edan et al., “Recommended diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: guidelines from the International Panel on the Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 121–127, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. F. D. Lublin and S. C. Reingold, “Defining the clinical course of multiple sclerosis: results of an international survey,” Neurology, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 907–911, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. F. Kurtzke, “Rating neurologic impairment in multiple sclerosis: an expanded disability status scale (EDSS),” Neurology, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 1444–1452, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. Ozakbas, I. Cagiran, B. Ormeci, and E. Idiman, “Correlations between multiple sclerosis functional composite, expanded disability status scale and health-related quality of life during and after treatment of relapses in patients with multiple sclerosis,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 218, no. 1-2, pp. 3–7, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Ozakbas, B. Ormeci, and E. Idiman, “Utilization of the multiple sclerosis functional composite in follow-up: relationship to disease phenotype, disability and treatment strategies,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 232, no. 1-2, pp. 65–69, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. S. Fischer, A. J. Jak, J. E. Knicker, and R. A. Rudick, Administration and Scoring Manual for the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite Measure (MSFC), National Multiple Sclerosis Society, New York, NY, USA, 1999.
  21. C. Renoux, S. Vukusic, and C. Confavreux, “The natural history of multiple sclerosis with childhood onset,” Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, vol. 110, no. 9, pp. 897–904, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. W. S. MacAllister, A. L. Belman, M. Milazzo et al., “Cognitive functioning in children and adolescents with multiple sclerosis,” Neurology, vol. 64, no. 8, pp. 1422–1425, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. B. L. Banwell and P. E. Anderson, “The cognitive burden of multiple sclerosis in children,” Neurology, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 891–894, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Tardieu and Y. Mikaeloff, “Multiple sclerosis in children,” International MS Journal, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 36–42, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Achiron, B.-Z. Garty, S. Menascu et al., “Multiple sclerosis in Israeli children: incidence, and clinical, cerebrospinal fluid and magnetic resonance imaging findings,” Israel Medical Association Journal, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 234–240, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. M. S. Sherman, E. Strauss, and F. Spellacy, “Validity of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) in adults referred for neuropsychological assessment after head injury,” Clinical Neuropsychologist, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 34–45, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Ozakbas, B. Ormeci, B. B. Kivircik Akdede, K. Alptekin, and E. Idiman, “Utilization of the auditory consonant trigram test to screen for cognitive impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis: comparison with the paced auditory serial addition test,” Multiple Sclerosis, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 686–689, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus