Table 1: Characteristics of disease-modifying therapies for multiple sclerosis.

DMT brand name (Generic name)ManufacturerFDA approval yearDose frequency administration [5]2010 Annual Tx cost [13, 14]Significant risks listed in package insert

Betaseron [15] (IFN beta-1b)Bayer Health Care Pharmaceuticals, Inc1993250 ug 2 days SC$38,369
Avonex [16] (IFN beta-1a)Biogen Idec, Inc199630 ug weekly IM$38,532
Copaxone [17] (Glatiramer acetate)Teva Neuroscience, Inc199620 mg daily SC$42,940
Novantrone [18] (Mitoxantrone)Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation200012 mg/m2  
3 months IV
$6,344Cardiotoxicity
Rebif [19] (IFN beta-1a)EMD Serono, Inc200044 ug 3x weekly SC$38,646
Tysabri [20] (Natalizumab)Elan Pharmaceuticals, Inc and Biogen Idec, Inc2004300 mg 4 weeks IV$40,426Increased risk of PML,
Elevated risk for infections
Extavia [21] (IFN beta-1b)Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation2009250 ug 2 days SC$38,368
Gilenya [22] (Fingolimod)Novartis Pharmaceutical Corporation20100.5 mg daily oral$47,944Cardiotoxicity, Elevated risk for infections

IFN: Interferon; IM: intramuscular; IV: intravenous; PML: progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy; SC: subcutaneous; Tx: treatment.