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Autoimmune Diseases
Volume 2013, Article ID 467808, 8 pages
Review Article

Updates on Morphea: Role of Vascular Injury and Advances in Treatment

1The Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
2The Department of Pediatrics, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA

Received 25 April 2013; Accepted 18 September 2013

Academic Editor: Paulo Ricardo Criado

Copyright © 2013 Julio C. Sartori-Valinotti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Morphea and systemic sclerosis are fibrosing disorders of the skin that share common inflammatory and immunologic pathways that are responsible for the vascular changes, increased collagen production, and extracellular matrix proliferation seen in both conditions. Recent advances in molecular biology techniques have furthered our knowledge of the potential underlying pathogenic mechanisms and offer new and provocative areas of research for novel diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This review focuses on the role of vascular injury in the development of morphea, the use of ultrasonography as a diagnostic modality, and well-established and newly proposed treatments.