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Autoimmune Diseases
Volume 2014, Article ID 473170, 8 pages
Review Article

Occurrence of Autoimmune Diseases Related to the Vaccine against Yellow Fever

1Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil
2CRDF, SHLN Bloco L Centro Cínico Norte II, 70910-900 Brasília, DF, Brazil
3Hospital Universitário Professor Edgard Santos da Universidade Federal da Bahia, 70390-700 Salvador, BA, Brazil
4Coordenação de Pesquisa da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), 41810-080 Brasília, DF, Brazil
5Laboratório de Biomarcadores de Diagnóstico e Monitoração do Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, FIOCRUZ, 21040-900 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

Received 30 July 2014; Revised 8 September 2014; Accepted 22 September 2014; Published 22 October 2014

Academic Editor: Ricard Cervera

Copyright © 2014 Ana Cristina Vanderley Oliveira et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Yellow fever is an infectious disease, endemic in South America and Africa. This is a potentially serious illness, with lethality between 5 and 40% of cases. The most effective preventive vaccine is constituted by the attenuated virus strain 17D, developed in 1937. It is considered safe and effective, conferring protection in more than 90% in 10 years. Adverse effects are known as mild reactions (allergies, transaminases transient elevation, fever, headache) and severe (visceral and neurotropic disease related to vaccine). However, little is known about its potential to induce autoimmune responses. This systematic review aims to identify the occurrence of autoinflammatory diseases related to 17D vaccine administration. Six studies were identified describing 13 possible cases. The diseases were Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis, multiple points evanescent syndrome, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, autoimmune hepatitis, and Kawasaki disease. The data suggest that 17D vaccination may play a role in the mechanism of loss of self-tolerance.