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Autoimmune Diseases
Volume 2014, Article ID 596824, 7 pages
Review Article

Role of Autoimmune Responses in Periodontal Disease

1Om Dental Clinic, No. 1554, Hebbal 2nd Stage, Mysore 570017, India
2M.R. Ambedkar Dental College and Hospital, No. 1/37, Cline Road, Cooke Town, Bangalore 560005, India

Received 28 January 2014; Revised 16 April 2014; Accepted 30 April 2014; Published 25 May 2014

Academic Editor: Corrado Betterle

Copyright © 2014 Soumya Nair et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Periodontal diseases are characterized by localized infections and inflammatory conditions that directly affect teeth supporting structures which are the major cause of tooth loss. Several studies have demonstrated the involvement of autoimmune responses in periodontal disease. Evidences of involvement of immunopathology have been reported in periodontal disease. Bacteria in the dental plaque induce antibody formation. Autoreactive T cells, natural killer cells, ANCA, heat shock proteins, autoantibodies, and genetic factors are reported to have an important role in the autoimmune component of periodontal disease. The present review describes the involvement of autoimmune responses in periodontal diseases and also the mechanisms underlying these responses. This review is an attempt to throw light on the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease highlighting the autoimmunity aspect of the etiopathogenesis involved in the initiation and progression of the disease. However, further clinical trials are required to strengthen the role of autoimmunity as a cause of periodontal disease.