Table 3: Animal model studies of asbestos and autoimmunity.

ReferenceStrain (all inbred)Disease modelSex usedTreatment (fiber, route, duration)Notes

Ferro et al., 2013 [39]C57BL/6 miceNone FemaleLA, Chry, i.t., 7 mo.LA (not Chry) increased
ANA and IL-17
Pfau et al., 2008 [40]C57BL/6 miceNone FemaleLA, i.t., 7 mo.LA increased ANA, anti-Ro52, anti-dsDNA, IC
Salazar et al., 2012 [41]Lewis ratNoneFemaleLA, amosite, i.t., 13 weeksBoth increase ANA, anti-Jo-1.
No IC, no anti-dsDNA
Salazar et al., 2012 [42] Lewis ratAntigen-induced arthritis (CIA, PG-PS)FemaleLA, amosite, i.t., 13 weeksBoth fibers increase ANA;
no exacerbated disease
Pfau et al., 2011 [43]C57BL/6 miceNone FemaleLA, tremolite, i.t., 7 mo.Both induced antifibroblast antibodies

LA: Libby amphibole; ANA: antinuclear antibodies; Chry: chrysotile; i.t.: intratracheal; CIA: collage-induced arthritis; PG-PS: peptidoglycan/polysaccharide induced arthritis; IC: immune complexes in kidneys. Amosite and tremolite are both amphiboles.