Table of Contents
Advances in Ecology
Volume 2014, Article ID 532687, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/532687
Review Article

Living at the Limits: Evidence for Microbial Eukaryotes Thriving under Pressure in Deep Anoxic, Hypersaline Habitats

1Department of Ecology, University of Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany
2Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA
3Horn Point Laboratory, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Cambridge, MD 21613, USA
4Institute for Coastal Marine Environment, CNR, Spianata S. Raineri 86, 98122 Messina, Italy

Received 4 February 2014; Revised 8 April 2014; Accepted 14 April 2014; Published 8 May 2014

Academic Editor: Eiko Kuramae

Copyright © 2014 Thorsten Stoeck et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The advent of molecular tools in microbial ecology paved the way to exploit the diversity of microbes in extreme environments. Here, we review these tools as applied in one of the most polyextreme habitats known on our planet, namely, deep hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs), located at ca. 3000–3500 m depth in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Molecular gene signatures amplified from environmental DHAB samples identified a high degree of genetic novelty, as well as distinct communities in the DHABs. Canonical correspondence analyses provided strong evidence that salinity, ion composition, and anoxia were the strongest selection factors shaping protistan community structures, largely preventing cross-colonization among the individual basins. Thus, each investigated basin represents a unique habitat (“isolated islands of evolution”), making DHABs ideal model sites to test evolutionary hypotheses. Fluorescence in situ hybridization assays using specifically designed probes revealed that the obtained genetic signatures indeed originated from indigenous polyextremophiles. Electron microscopy imaging revealed unknown ciliates densely covered with prokaryote ectosymbionts, which may enable adaptations of eukaryotes to DHAB conditions. The research reviewed here significantly advanced our knowledge on polyextremophile eukaryotes, which are excellent models for a number of biological research areas, including ecology, diversity, biotechnology, evolutionary research, physiology, and astrobiology.