Table of Contents
Advances in Ecology
Volume 2014, Article ID 917834, 10 pages
Review Article

Structuring Effects of Deer in Boreal Forest Ecosystems

1Chaire de Recherche Industrielle CRSNG en Aménagement Intégré des Ressources de L’île d’Anticosti, Département de Biologie et Centre d’Études Nordiques, Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada G1V 0A6
2Direction de la Recherche Forestière, Ministère des Forêts, de la Faune et des Parcs, 2700 Einstein, Québec, QC, Canada G1P 3W8

Received 2 June 2014; Accepted 19 August 2014; Published 16 September 2014

Academic Editor: Junbao Yu

Copyright © 2014 Steeve D. Côté et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Many deer populations have recently increased worldwide leading to strong direct and indirect ecological and socioeconomical impacts on the composition, dynamic, and functions of forest ecosystems. Deer directly modify the composition and structure of vegetation communities, but they also indirectly affect other species of the ecosystem by modifying the structure of the vegetation. Here we review the results of a research program on overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the boreal forest of Anticosti Island (Québec, Canada) aimed at identifying deer densities compatible with forest regeneration. Various silvicultural systems and treatments failed to regenerate deer habitat at high deer densities, but planting size-adapted seedlings could be effective at moderate densities. Using a controlled deer density experiment, we found vegetation recovery at deer densities ≤ 15 deer/km2. The same experiment revealed that other groups of organisms such as insects and birds responded favorably to a reduction of deer density. We also found that alternative successional trajectories may occur after a certain period of heavy browsing during early succession. We conclude that one of the most important remaining research gaps is the need to identify habitat-specific threshold densities at which deer impacts occur and then to design effective wildlife and forest management strategies to limit deer impacts and sustain ecosystem integrity.