Table of Contents
Advances in Ecology
Volume 2016, Article ID 1529703, 7 pages
Research Article

Carbon Sequestration in Tropical and Subtropical Plant Species in Collaborative and Community Forests of Nepal

1Department of Forests, Babarmahal, Kathmandu, Nepal
2Central Department of Botany, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal
3Tribhuvan University Commission, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal
4District Forest Office, Hattisar, Kathmandu, Nepal
5Tri-Chandra College, Ghantaghar, Kathmandu, Nepal

Received 9 December 2015; Revised 7 April 2016; Accepted 12 April 2016

Academic Editor: Junbao Yu

Copyright © 2016 Ram Asheshwar Mandal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Lal, Forest Management: Classical Approach and Current Imperstives, Division Deharadoon, Chaman Interprises, New Delhi, India, 2007.
  2. D. McKenna, S. Naumann, K. McFarland, A. Graf, and D. Evans, “Literature review, the ecological effectiveness of the natural 2000 network,” ETC/BD Report to the EEA, The Ecological Effectiveness of the Natural, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  3. R. Costanza, R. D'Arge, R. de Groot et al., “The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital,” Nature, vol. 387, no. 6630, pp. 253–260, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. U. Hooper and P. M. Vitousek, “The effects of plant composition and diversity on ecosystem processes,” Science, vol. 277, no. 5330, pp. 1302–1305, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. Kenrick and P. R. Crane, “The origin and early evolution of plants on land,” Nature, vol. 389, no. 6646, pp. 33–39, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. Parmesan and G. Yohe, “A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems,” Nature, vol. 421, no. 2, pp. 37–42, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. A. Lau and P. Tiffin, “Elevated carbon dioxide concentrations indirectly affect plant fitness by altering plant tolerance to herbivory,” Oecologia, vol. 161, no. 2, pp. 401–410, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Khallaf, The Impact of Air Pollution on Health, Economy, Environment and Agricultural Sources, Tech Europe University Campus STeP R, 2011.
  9. J. Latham, M. Trivedi, R. Amin, and L. D'Arcy, A Sourcebook of Biodiversity Monitoring for REDD+, Zoological Society of London, London, UK, 2014.
  10. F. Greg and L. Donna, Early Lessons from Jurisdictional REDD+ and Low Emissions Development Programs. The Nature Conservation, Forest Carbon Partnership Facility, The World Bank, Washington, DC, USA, 2015.
  11. B. Mackey, C. Prentice, W. Steffen et al., “Untangling the confusion around land carbon science and climate change mitigation policy,” Nature Climate Change, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 552–557, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  12. G. Kissinger, M. Herold, and V. De, Drivers of Deforestation and Forest Degradation: A Synthesis Report for REDD+ Policymakers, Lexeme Consulting, Vancouver, Canada, 2012.
  13. A. Lisa, A. Simon, L. Nathaniel et al., IPCC Fifth Assessment Report Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis Summary for Policymakers, Germany, IPCC, 2014.
  14. R. E. Gullison, P. C. Frumhoff, J. G. Canadell et al., “Tropical forests and climate policy,” Science, vol. 316, no. 5827, pp. 985–986, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. MoE, Nepal's Second National Communication Report, Ministry of Environment, Singhdurbar,, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2014.
  16. A. P. Kinzig, C. Perrings, F. S. Chapin III et al., “Paying for ecosystem services—promise and peril,” Science, vol. 334, no. 6056, pp. 603–604, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. J. Nowak, J. T. Walton, J. C. Stevens, D. E. Crane, and R. E. Hoehn, “Effect of plot and sample size on timing and precision of urban forest assessments,” Arboriculture and Urban Forestry, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 386–390, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. B. Neupane and R. Sharma, “An assessment of the effect of vegetation size and type, and altitude on above ground plant biomass and carbon,” Journal of Agriculture and Crop Research, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 56–60, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  19. B. S. Jina, P. Sah, M. D. Bhatt, and Y. S. Rawat, “Estimating carbon sequestration rates and total carbon stockpile in degraded and non-degraded sites of Oak and Pine forest of Kumaun Central Himalaya,” Journal of Ecoprint, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 75–81, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. J. Chave, C. Andalo, S. Brown et al., “Tree allometry and improved estimation of carbon stocks and balance in tropical forests,” Oecologia, vol. 145, no. 1, pp. 87–99, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. K. MacDicken, A Guide to Monitoring Carbon Storage in Forestry and Agroforestry Projects, Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, Arlington, Va, USA, 1997.
  22. IPCC, “IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories,” in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, H. S. Eggleston, L. Buendia, K. Miwa, T. Ngara, and K. Tanabe, Eds., Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), Hayama, Japan, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  23. C. Wu and C. Jiahua, Sampling and Experimental Design, Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science University of Waterloo, Ghent, Belgium, 2006.
  24. I. P. Sapkota, M. Tigabu, and P. C. Odén, “Spatial distribution, advanced regeneration and stand structure of Nepalese Sal (Shorea robusta) forests subject to disturbances of different intensities,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 257, no. 9, pp. 1966–1975, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. FRA/DFRS, Tarai Forests of Nepal (2010–2012), Forest Resource Assessment Nepal Project/Department of Forest Research and Survey, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2014.
  26. P. Tamrakar, Biomass and Volume Tables with Species Description for Community Forest Management, Compiled by P. R. Tamrakar, Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2000.
  27. K. Acharya, R. Regmi, and B. Acharya, Biomass and Volume Tabels for Terai Sal (Shorea robusta) Forest of Nepal, Department of Forest Research and Survey, Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2003.
  28. I. Pandya, H. Salvi, O. Chahar, and N. Vaghela, “Quantitative analysis on carbon storage of 25 valuable tree species of gujarat, incredible India,” Indian Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 137–141, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  29. J. Sharma and R. Varma, “A review on endangered plant of Mallotus philippensis,” Pharmacolog, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1256–1265, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  30. A. Tewari and B. Karky, Carbon Management Methodology and Results in Reducing Carbon Emission through Community-Managed Forests in the Himalaya, Hill Side Press, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2007.
  31. V. Singh, A. Tewari, J. Ram, and C. Singh, “Aspect related changes in biomass stocks and carbon sequestration rates of Shorea robusta (Sal) forest of Central Himalaya,” Report and Opinion, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 56–60, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  32. DFRS, Managing degraded Shorea robusta forests in Terai of Nepal, 2009.
  33. A. Tewari and B. Karky, Carbon Measurement Methodology and Results, Reducing Carbon Emission through Community Managed Forests in Himalayan, 2007.
  34. R. G. Newell and R. N. Stavins, “Climate change and forest sinks: factors affecting the costs of carbon sequestration,” Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 211–235, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. J. Nowak, E. J. Greenfield, R. E. Hoehn, and E. Lapoint, “Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 178, pp. 229–236, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus