Table of Contents
Advances in Environmental Chemistry
Volume 2014, Article ID 792680, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/792680
Research Article

Two-Phase Dechlorination/Detoxification of Lindane (Hexachlorocyclohexane)

1IAD, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga university, 1 Honjo-machi, Saga 840-8502, Japan

Received 16 June 2014; Revised 6 August 2014; Accepted 16 September 2014; Published 29 September 2014

Academic Editor: Vasile Furdui

Copyright © 2014 Abdul Ghaffar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Dechlorination of lindane was carried out in a two-phase reaction. In first phase Devarda’s alloy and sodium borohydride were used in aqueous/ethanol reaction media. The reaction duration and temperature were optimized. In first phase higher dechlorination (78%) was achieved at 80°C with 40-minute reaction time and the products were chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene, and chlorocyclohexane. In second phase, Ca(OH)2 and sulfur were added in reaction media. The reactions conditions like temperature and reaction time were optimized. After 30 minutes, dechlorination was enhanced from 78% to 94% and the final products were benzene, phenol, catechol, benzenethiol, cyclohexane, cyclohexanol, and cyclohexanethiol. The results suggested that dechlorination of lindane in first and second phase was carried out through hydrodechlorination and substitution reactions, respectively. The developed method was applied for lindane containing real wastewater and higher dechlorination (91%) was achieved under optimized reaction conditions.