Table of Contents
Advances in Electrical Engineering
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 896296, 13 pages
Research Article

Towards the Smart Grid: Substation Automation Architecture and Technologies

AGT International, Hilpertstraße 35, 64295 Darmstadt, Germany

Received 29 April 2014; Accepted 29 June 2014; Published 20 August 2014

Academic Editor: Sarod Yatawatta

Copyright © 2014 A. Leonardi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Pike Research, Smart Grid: Ten Trends to Watch in 2012 and Beyond, 2012.
  2. J. D. McDonald, Electric Power Substations Engineering, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2012.
  3. CEN-CENELEC-ETSI Smart Grid Coordination Group, Smart Grid Reference Architecture, ETSI, 2012.
  4. “Electric Power Distribution,” Wikipedia,
  5. IEEE, IEEE standard for SCADA and automation systems C37.1-2007, 2008.
  6. J. D. McDonald, “Substation Automation Basics—The Next Generation,” Electric Energy T&D Magazine, 2007.
  7. T. Ihonen, “LNI Verkko- Smart Grids in Practice,” Presentation.
  8. ABB, “ABB Network Manager SCADA/DMS,” Application Brochure.
  9. SMB Smart Grid Strategic Group (SG3), “IEC Smart Grid Standardization Roadmap,” 2010,
  10. OPC Foundation, “OPC—The Interoperability Standard for Industrial Automation & Other Related Domains,” 2013,
  11. S. Lehnhoff, S. Rohjans, M. Uslar, and W. Mahnke, “OPC unified architecture: A service-oriented architecture for smart grids,” in Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Software Engineering Challenges for the Smart Grid (SE-SmartGrids '12), pp. 1–7, IEEE, June 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Hegge and A. Larsen, “The ELCOM utility communication concept,” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1411–1417, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Siemens, “Power Engi neering Guide Edition 7.0—Communication Network Solutions for Smart Grids”.
  14. IEC, “Power Utility Automation,” IEC 61850.
  15. IEC, “WG10 Power system IED communication and associated data model,”,FSP_LANG_ID:2400,25. [22 Jan 2014].
  16. IEC, Technical Committee 57, 2014,
  17. ABB, “650 Series DNP3 Communication Protocol,” Manual, 2011.
  18. ABB, “IEC 60870-5-101/104 Communication Protocol,” Manual, 2011.
  19. Modicon, Modbus Protocol Reference Guide, 1996.
  20. IEC, “Common Information Model (CIM)/Energy Management,” IEC 61970.
  21. IEC, “WG 13 Energy management system application program interface (EMS-API),” 2014,,FSP_LANG_ID:2392,25.
  22. IEC, “Common Information Model (CIM)/Distribution Management,” IEC 61968.
  23. IEC, “WG14 System interfaces for distribution management (SIDM),”,FSP_LANG_ID:2393,25.
  24. IEC, “Standards related to energy market models & communications,” IEC 62325.
  25. IEC, “WG16 Deregulated energy market communications,”,FSP_LANG_ID:2388,25.
  26. NRECA, The MultiSpeak Specification, 2014,
  27. NRECA, “MultiSpeak,” 2014,
  28. IEC, “Configuration language for communication in electrical substations related to IEDs,” IEC 61850-6.
  29. IEC, “Basic communication structure for substation and feeder equipment,” IEC 61850-7.
  30. IEC, Abstract Communication Service Interface (ACSI), IEC 61850-7-2, 2010.
  31. IEC, “Common Data Classes,” IEC 61850-7-3.
  32. IEC, “Compatible logical node classes and data classes,” IEC 61850-7-4.
  33. T. Kostic, O. Preiss, and C. Frei, “Towards the formal integration of two upcoming standards: IEC 61970 and IEC 61850,” in Proceedings of the Large Engineering Systems Conference on Power Engineering (LESCOPE '03), pp. 24–29, May 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. R.-M. Keski-Keturi, Implementing the IEC common information model for distribution system operators [M.S. thesis], Tampere, Finland, Tampere University, 2011.
  35. IEC, “WG 19 Interoperability within TC 57 in the long term,”,FSP_LANG_ID:2402,25.
  36. EPRI, “Harmonizing the international electrotechnical commission Common Information Model (CIM) and 61850,” EPRI 1020098, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  37. IEC, “Application integration at electric utilities—system interfaces for distribution management—Part 14: multiSpeak—CIM harmonization,” IEC 61968-14.
  38. NIST, Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards, Special Publication 1108, 2010.
  39. NIST, “PAP08: CIM/61850 for Distribution Grid Management,”
  40. P. Oman, E. O. Schweitzer, and D. Frincke, “Concerns about intrusions into remotely accessible substation controllers and SCADA systems,” Tech. Rep., Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  41. NIST, “Guide to Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Security—Special Publication 800-82,” 2011.
  42. NIST, NISTIR 7628—Guidelines for Smart Grid Cyber Security, vol. 1 of Smart Grid Cyber Security Strategy, Architecture, and High-Level Requirements, 2010.
  43. IEEE, “IEEE 1402-2000,”
  44. NERC, “Security Guidelines for the Electricity Sector,”
  45. NERC, “CIP,”
  46. VIKING Consortium, “REPORT D2.3 SCADA system architectures,” VIKING Consortium, 2010.