Table of Contents
Advances in Emergency Medicine
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 502703, 11 pages
Research Article

Emergency Department Visits and Injury Hospitalizations for Female and Male Victims and Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

1Biomedical Department, Western Michigan University Homer Stryker M.D. School of Medicine, 1000 Oakland Drive, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA
2Trauma Department, Borgess Medical Center, Kalamazoo, MI 49048, USA
3Trauma Department, Bronson Methodist Hospital, Kalamazoo, MI 49007, USA
4Emergency Medicine Department, Borgess Medical Center, Kalamazoo, MI 49048, USA
5Kalamazoo County Prosecuting Attorney’s Office, Kalamazoo, MI 49001, USA
6Trauma Department, Spectrum Health Butterworth, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, USA
7Emergency Department, Bronson Lakeview Hospital, Kalamazoo, MI 49048, USA

Received 29 August 2015; Revised 26 October 2015; Accepted 27 October 2015

Academic Editor: Bruno Megarbane

Copyright © 2015 Catherine L. Kothari et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Introduction. The potential for hospital-based interventions for male victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) as well as adult perpetrators of both genders has been largely unexplored despite early evidence of acute-care utilization that may be as high as female victims. The current investigation compared the emergency department (ED) and injury-related-hospitalization rates of IPV-involved individuals against standardized national norms, assessing differences by gender and victim/perpetrator-status. Methods. This cross-sectional study collected one-year ED and in-patient visit data from hospital records for individuals listed as victim or perpetrator in an IPV criminal charging request in a Midwestern county (). Expected rates were calculated based upon age-adjusted national norms. Results. The IPV-involved population generated ED rates 4.1 times higher than expected and injury-related-hospitalization rates that were 4.0 times higher than expected. Bi-directionally-violent individuals (both victim and perpetrator in IPV charges) consistently had the highest utilization rates (ED 8.4 RR, injury-hospitalization 22.5 RR). Victims, primarily female, had higher ED-visits than perpetrators, primarily male (victims = 4.6 RR, perpetrator = 3.1 RR). Perpetrators, though, had higher injury hospitalizations (victims = 0.8RR, perpetrators = 5.5 RR). Conclusions. Substantial opportunities exist within acute-care medical settings to intervene with IPV-involved women, men, victims, and perpetrators, although the magnitude of the opportunity varied by setting, gender and victim/perpetrator-status.