Table of Contents
Advances in Endocrinology
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 967562, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/967562
Review Article

Overview of Cellular Transplantation in Diabetes Mellitus: Focus on the Metabolic Outcome

1Metabolism Research Center and Endocrinology and Metabolism, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato Milanese, 20097 Milan, Italy
2Department of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Milan, 20121 Milan, Italy
3Diabetes Research Institute, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20132 Milan, Italy

Received 16 September 2014; Accepted 29 December 2014

Academic Editor: Sarantis Livadas

Copyright © 2015 Livio Luzi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease possible to treat via several different therapeutic approaches. Since the advent of insulin in 1922, type 1 diabetes mellitus has become a chronic treatable disease. Nonetheless, type 1 diabetes mellitus can be a devastating disease when the macro- and microangiopathic complications take place after several years of illness. Starting from the eighties, pancreas/islet transplantation has become a potential innovative treatment of diabetes mellitus. The major advantage of pancreas/islet transplantation is the restoration of c-peptide cosecretion along with insulin; the major disadvantage is the need to administer immunosuppressive drugs which are diabetogenic themselves. Islet transplantation is the progenitor of more recent forms of cellular and stem cell therapies which will be reviewed herein. Cellular therapies for diabetes mellitus are still an experimental procedure. Herein we present the actual current achievements and an outlook of close future possible advancements in the area of cellular transplantation for the cure of diabetes mellitus.