Table of Contents
Advances in Endocrinology
Volume 2015, Article ID 967562, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/967562
Review Article

Overview of Cellular Transplantation in Diabetes Mellitus: Focus on the Metabolic Outcome

1Metabolism Research Center and Endocrinology and Metabolism, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato Milanese, 20097 Milan, Italy
2Department of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Milan, 20121 Milan, Italy
3Diabetes Research Institute, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20132 Milan, Italy

Received 16 September 2014; Accepted 29 December 2014

Academic Editor: Sarantis Livadas

Copyright © 2015 Livio Luzi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. IDF, Diabetes Atlas, International Diabetes Federation, 6th edition, 2013.
  2. C. C. Patterson, G. G. Dahlquist, E. Gyürüs, A. Green, and G. Soltész, “Incidence trends for childhood type 1 diabetes in Europe during 1989–2003 and predicted new cases 2005–20: a Multicentre Prospective Registration Study,” The Lancet, vol. 373, no. 9680, pp. 2027–2033, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. M. Thule and G. Umpierrez, “Sulfonylureas: a new look at old therapy topical collection on pharmacologic treatment of type 2 diabetes,” Current Diabetes Reports, vol. 14, no. 4, article 473, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. Sattar, “Advances in managing type 2 diabetes: challenging old paradigms and developing new ones,” F1000Prime Reports, vol. 6, article 42, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. W. D. Kelly, R. C. Lillehei, F. K. Merkel, Y. Idezuki, and F. G. Goetz, “Allotransplantation of the pancreas and duodenum along with the kidney in diabetic nephropathy,” Surgery, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 827–837, 1967. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. J. Stratta, “Review of immunosuppressive usage in pancreas transplantation,” Clinical Transplantation, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. E. Lacy and M. Kostianovsky, “Method for the isolation of intact islets of Langerhans from the rat pancreas,” Diabetes, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 35–39, 1967. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. E. Lacy, “Transplantation of islet cells—isografts and allografts,” Monographs in pathology, vol. 21, pp. 156–165, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. P. E. Lacy, J. M. Davie, and E. H. Finke, “Transplantation of insulin-producing tissue,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 589–594, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. W. Scharp, P. E. Lacy, J. V. Santiago et al., “Results of our first nine intraportal islet allografts in type 1, insulin-dependent diabetic patients,” Transplantation, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 76–85, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. M. J. Shapiro, C. Ricordi, B. J. Hering et al., “International trial of the Edmonton protocol for islet transplantation,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 355, no. 13, pp. 1318–1330, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. Luzi, A. Secchi, F. Facchini et al., “Reduction of insulin resistance by combined kidney-pancreas transplantation in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients,” Diabetologia, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 549–556, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. R. Martel, J. Klicius, and S. Galet, “Inhibition of the immune response by rapamycin, a new antifungal antibiotic,” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 48–51, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Douros and M. Suffness, “New antitumor substances of natural origin,” Cancer Treatment Reviews, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 63–87, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. F. J. Dumont, M. J. Staruch, S. L. Koprak et al., “The immunosuppressive and toxic effects of FK-506 are mechanistically related: pharmacology of a novel antagonist of FK-506 and rapamycin,” The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 176, no. 3, pp. 751–760, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. Liu, J. D. Farmer Jr., W. S. Lane, J. Friedman, I. Weissman, and S. L. Schreiber, “Calcineurin is a common target of cyclophilin-cyclosporin A and FKBP-FK506 complexes,” Cell, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 807–815, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. S. MacDonald, “Rapamycin in combination with cyclosporine or tacrolimus in liver, pancreas, and kidney transplantation,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 35, no. 3, supplement, pp. S201–S208, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. G. Perseghin, E. Regalia, A. Battezzati et al., “Regulation of glucose homeostasis in humans with denervated livers,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 931–941, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. L. Gillison, S. T. Bartlett, and D. L. Curry, “Synthesis-secretion coupling of insulin: effect of cyclosporin,” Diabetes, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 465–470, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. Shapiro, “Low toxicity immunosuppressive protocols in renal transplantation,” The Keio Journal of Medicine, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 18–22, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. W. H. Lim, J. Eris, J. Kanellis et al., “A systematic review of conversion from calcineurin inhibitor to mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors for maintenance immunosuppression in kidney transplant recipients,” The American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 2106–2119, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. N. Murakami, L. V. Riella, and T. Funakoshi, “Risk of metabolic complications in kidney transplantation after conversion to mTOR inhibitor: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” The American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 2317–2327, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  23. Y. Ido, A. Vindigni, K. Chang et al., “Prevention of vascular and neural dysfunction in diabetic rats by C- peptide,” Science, vol. 277, no. 5325, pp. 563–566, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. L. Luzi, G. Zerbini, and A. Caumo, “C-peptide: a redundant relative of insulin?” Diabetologia, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 500–502, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. N. Marx, D. Walcher, C. Raichle et al., “C-peptide colocalizes with macrophages in early arteriosclerotic lesions of diabetic subjects and induces monocyte chemotaxis in vitro,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 540–545, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Wahren, K. Ekberg, and H. Jornvall, “C-peptide is a bioactive peptide,” Diabetologia, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 503–509, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  27. L. Luzi, G. Perseghin, M. D. Brendel et al., “Metabolic effects of restoring partial Beta-cell function after islet allotransplantation in type 1 diabetic patients,” Diabetes, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 277–282, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. B. J. Hering, C. C. Browatzki, A. Schultz, R. G. Bretzel, and K. F. Federlin, “Clinical islet transplantation—registry report, accomplishments in the past and future research needs,” Cell Transplantation, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 269–282, 1993, discussion 283–305. View at Google Scholar
  29. R. Alejandro, D. H. Mintz, J. Noel et al., “Islet cell transplantation in type I diabetes mellitus,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 19, no. 1, part 3, pp. 2359–2361, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. N. J. M. London, G. S. M. Robertson, D. R. Chadwick, P. R. V. Johnson, R. F. L. James, and P. R. F. Bell, “Human pancreatic islet isolation and transplantation,” Clinical Transplantation, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 421–459, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. Luzi, P. Castellino, D. C. Simonson, A. S. Petrides, and R. A. Defronzo, “Leucine metabolism in IDDM: role of insulin and substrate availability,” Diabetes, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 38–48, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. L. Luzi, A. S. Petrides, and R. A. de Fronzo, “Different sensitivity of glucose and amino acid metabolism to insulin in NIDDM,” Diabetes, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 1868–1877, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. L. Luzi, L. C. Groop, G. Perseghin et al., “Effect of pancreas transplantation on free fatty acid metabolism in uremic IDDM patients,” Diabetes, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 354–360, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. L. C. Groop, R. C. Bonadonna, S. DelPrato et al., “Glucose and free fatty acid metabolism in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Evidence for multiple sites of insulin resistance,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 205–213, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. R. Matthews, J. P. Hosker, A. S. Rudenski, B. A. Naylor, D. F. Treacher, and R. C. Turner, “Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and Beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man,” Diabetologia, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 412–419, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. C. Dalla Man, A. Caumo, R. Basu, R. Rizza, G. Toffolo, and C. Cobelli, “Minimal model estimation of glucose absorption and insulin sensitivity from oral test: validation with a tracer method,” The American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 287, no. 4, pp. E637–E643, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. V. Delmonte, E. M. Peixoto, R. Poggioli et al., “Ten years' evaluation of diet, anthropometry, and physical exercise adherence after islet allotransplantation,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 2025–2028, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. L. Luzi, L. P. Sereni, A. Battezzati, A. Elli, J. P. Soulillou, and D. Cantarovich, “Metabolic effects of a corticosteroid-free immunosuppressive regimen in recipients of pancreatic transplant,” Transplantation, vol. 75, no. 12, pp. 2018–2023, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. E. Patti, E. Brambilla, L. Luzi, E. J. Landaker, and C. R. Kahn, “Bidirectional modulation of insulin action by amino acids,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 101, no. 7, pp. 1519–1529, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. S. Benedini, E. Ruffini, I. Terruzzi, M. Mancuso, and L. Luzi, “Glucose and leucine metabolism in lung tranplanted patients on low dose of steroids for immunosuppressive therapy,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 1566–1571, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. L. Luzi, G. Perseghin, P. Maffi et al., “Improved metabolic outcome of islet transplantation (ITx) in T1DM: the role of rapamycin,” Diabetes, vol. 53, supplement 2, p. A454, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  42. G. Perseghin, G. Lattuada, M. Danna et al., “Effect of rapamycin (Rapa) and of isolated intra-portal islets transplantation (ITx) on hepatic triglyceride (IHF) content in humans: a longitudinal study,” in Proceedings of the ADA 68th Scientific Sessions, p. 1947, San Francisco, Calif, USA, June 2008.
  43. Board on Health Sciences Policy, Board on Life Sciences, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Institute of Medicine, and National Academy of Sciences, Stem Cell Therapies: Opportunities for Ensuring the Quality and Safety of Clinical Offerings: Summary of a Joint Workshop, National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2014.
  44. G. Orlando, P. Gianello, M. Salvatori et al., “Cell replacement strategies aimed at reconstitution of the β-cell compartment in type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 1433–1444, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. G. Pennarossa, S. Maffei, M. Campagnol, L. Tarantini, F. Gandolfi, and T. A. L. Brevini, “Brief demethylation step allows the conversion of adult human skin fibroblasts into insulin-secreting cells,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 110, no. 22, pp. 8948–8953, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. Figliuzzi, B. Bonandrini, S. Silvani, and A. Remuzzi, “Mesenchymal stem cells help pancreatic islet transplantation to control type 1 diabetes,” World Journal of Stem Cells, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 163–172, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. G. P. Fadini, F. Ferraro, F. Quaini, T. Asahara, and P. Madeddu, “Concise review: diabetes, the bone marrow niche, and impaired vascular regeneration,” Stem Cells Translational Medicine, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 949–957, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. H. Wu and R. I. Mahato, “Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapy for type 1 diabetes,” Discovery Medicine, vol. 17, no. 93, pp. 139–143, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. K. Y. Howangyin and J. S. Silvestre, “Diabetes mellitus and ischemic diseases: molecular mechanisms of vascular repair dysfunction,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1126–1135, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. C. Gu, S. Huang, D. Gao et al., “Angiogenic effect of mesenchymal stem cells as a therapeutic target for enhancing diabetic wound Healing,” The International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 88–93, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. N. Lois, R. V. McCarter, C. O'Neill, R. J. Medina, and A. W. Stitt, “Endothelial progenitor cells in diabetic retinopath,” Frontiers in Endocrinology, vol. 5, article 44, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. G. C. Davey, S. B. Patil, A. O'Loughlin, and T. O'Brien, “Mesenchymal stem cell-based treatment for microvascular and secondary complications of diabetes mellitus,” Frontiers in Endocrinology, vol. 5, p. 86, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. H. Mizukami and S. Yagihashi, “Exploring a new therapy for diabetic polyneuropathy—the application of stem cell transplantation,” Frontiers in Endocrinology, vol. 5, article 45, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. E. Ezquer, F. E. Ezquer, M. L. Arango-Rodríguez, and P. A. Conget, “MSC transplantation: a promising therapeutic strategy to manage the onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy,” Biological Research, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 289–296, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. Q. Tong, L. Duan, Z. Xu et al., “Improved insulin secretion following intrapancreatic UCB transplantation in patients with T2DM,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 98, no. 9, pp. E1501–E1504, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. R. Krishnan, M. Alexander, L. Robles, C. E. Foster, and J. R. T. Lakey, “Islet and stem cell encapsulation for clinical transplantation,” The Review of Diabetic Studies, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 84–101, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. S. Tezza, M. Ben Nasr, A. Vergani et al., “Novel immunological strategies for islet transplantation,” Pharmacological Research, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. G. Perseghin, H. Hilden, E. Bianchi et al., “Normal sensitivity of FFA metabolism despite resistance of glucose metabolism to insulin after pancreas transplantation,” Diabetes, vol. 43, p. 138a, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  59. L. Luzi, B. J. Hering, C. Socci et al., “Metabolic effects of successful intraportal islet transplantation in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 97, no. 11, pp. 2611–2618, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. G. Perseghin, A. Caumo, L. P. Sereni, A. Battezzati, and L. Luzi, “Fasting blood sample-based assessment of insulin sensitivity in kidney-pancreas-transplanted patients,” Diabetes Care, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2207–2211, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. Y. Song and S. Liu, “Insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion determined by homeostasis model assessment and risk of diabetes in a multiethnic cohort of women: the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study,” Diabetes Care, vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 1747–1752, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. S. del Prato, P. Marchetti, and R. C. Bonadonna, “Phasic insulin release and metabolic regulation in type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes, vol. 51, supplement 1, pp. S109–S116, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. G. Perseghin, A. Caumo, V. Mazzaferro et al., “Assessment of insulin sensitivity based on a fasting blood sample in men with liver cirrhosis before and after liver transplantation,” Transplantation, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 697–702, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. T. M. Wallace, J. C. Levy, and D. R. Matthews, “Use and abuse of HOMA modeling,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1487–1495, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. C. Cobelli, G. M. Toffolo, C. D. Man et al., “Assessment of β-cell function in humans, simultaneously with insulin sensitivity and hepatic extraction, from intravenous and oral glucose tests,” American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 293, no. 1, pp. E1–E15, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. W. Cai, L. Hu, and J. G. Foulkes, “Transcription-modulating drugs: mechanism and selectivity,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 608–615, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. L. A. Fernandez, R. Lehmann, L. Luzi et al., “The effects of maintenance doses of FK506 versus cyclosporin A on glucose and lipid metabolism after orthotopic liver transplantation,” Transplantation, vol. 68, no. 10, pp. 1532–1541, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  68. S. Benedini, A. Caumo, I. Terruzzi, and L. Luzi, “Immunosuppressive therapy in pancreas and islet transplant: need for simultaneous assessment of insulin sensitivity and secretion,” Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 156–160, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar