Table of Contents
Advances in Epidemiology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 104697, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/104697
Research Article

Epidemiological Investigation of Canine Leishmaniasis in Southern Morocco

1Institut Supérieur des Professions Infirmières et des Techniques de Santé (ISPITS), Ministère de Santé, 40 000 Marrakech, Morocco
2Equipe Ecologie Animale et Environnement-Lab L2E (URAC 32), Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Université Cadi Ayyad, 40 000 Marrakech, Morocco
3ANSES, French Agency for Health and Safety, Animal Health Laboratory, Leishmaniasis and Sand Flies Team, 94 700 Maisons-Alfort, France
4Equipe Modélisation Economique-Lab PEL, Faculté des Sciences Juridiques Economiques et Sociales, Université Hassan 2, 20 650 Mohammedia, Morocco

Received 20 April 2014; Revised 21 August 2014; Accepted 9 September 2014; Published 24 September 2014

Academic Editor: Xu-Sheng Zhang

Copyright © 2014 Samia Boussaa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Dogs are the major reservoir of Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is usually believed to be widespread mainly, if not only, in the northern regions and few data are available about the situation in southern parts of the country. Here, we report the results of a preliminary, clinical, and serological study carried out in 2004–2007, in four provinces of southern Morocco. Serological analyses were processed using two different Elisa techniques, a homemade Elisa test and IDVET commercial kit, and confirmed by two different western blot (WB) tests, homemade and LDBIO commercial kits. We highlighted the presence of CanL infection in southern regions, known until then as free of the disease: 19.8% (48/243) of examined dogs displayed clinical signs compatible with CanL and the seroprevalence was particularly high, respectively, 81.8% and 87.8% by Elisa and western blot tests. Our current developed and validated homemade (Elisa and WB) tools will be cost-effective and useful for next large-scale epidemiological studies on Moroccan leishmaniasis animal reservoir.