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Applied and Environmental Soil Science
Volume 2010, Article ID 973925, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/973925
Research Article

Influence of Tillage and Daily Manure Application on the Survival of Bacterial Pathogens Indicators in Soil and on Radish

USDA Agricultural Research Service, Northwest Irrigation and Soils Research Laboratory, 3793 North, 3600 East, Kimberly, ID 83341, USA

Received 1 February 2010; Revised 1 April 2010; Accepted 9 June 2010

Academic Editor: Marco Trevisan

Copyright © 2010 James A. Entry et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We measured Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus sp. numbers in soil and on fresh radish (Raphanus sativus L.) at 1, 7, 14, 28, 54, and 84 days after the addition of high and low amounts of solid dairy manure in combination with chisel tillage to a 20 cm depth (deep) or roller tillage to a 10 cm depth (shallow). When the high or low amount of solid dairy manure was added to the soil, E. coli populations in soil were higher in the 54 days following manure addition compared to the control treatment. Dairy manure addition increased Enterococcus sp. in soils compared to the control treatment for the entire 84 days sampling period. At harvest, which was 84 days after application, we did not detect E. coli in radish in rhizosphere soil or on radish roots. Addition of solid dairy manure increased Enterococcus sp. numbers in radish rhizosphere soil and on radish roots. We suggest that fresh animal manure be applied to soil at least 120 days prior to planting to allow die-off of human pathogenic bacteria and reduce the incidence of bacterial adhesion on or bacterial colonization of ready to eat vegetables.